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With the increasing subjection of animal abuse and exploitation, not only in domestic situations, but also in circuses, aquariums, zoos and other forms of attraction, companies such as PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) and ASPCA (American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals) are aiming to bring about the further establishment of social responsibility needed by a number of individuals who already partially support the end to animal cruelty and other animal-related causes. The following advertisement campaign created by the organizations, Acção Animal and Liga Portuguesa dos Direitos do Animal (LDPA), allows for representation and hidden voices of animals who are trapped in an endless cycle of entertaining and performing for others to be finally heard and be of importance. The three combined advertisements of a lion, chimpanzee and baby seal emanate a sense of connection with the animals and the circus-goers by combining Aristotelian appeals with an effective, visually striking advertisement design incorporating the use of colors, images and emotionally-driven copy in order to create an overall melancholic and sorrow state of appeal. Overview of Advertisement Features and Design The three advertisements are combined to form one central message about the ethical treatment of animals in circus environments. The first image depicts a baby seal painted with clown makeup barred behind a wire-fenced cage. The second image depicts a chimpanzee with the same features, but behind horizontal bars, almost as if it is in a prison. The third image depicts a lion in makeup as well and behind square fencing. The entrapment that is symbolic and literal is shown through the use of some sort of containment device (i.e. wiring, bars, etc.). Acção Animal and LDPA chose to have each of the different animals caged in, emphasizing their inability to escape and be free. Each animal is placed in the center of the advertisement with a dark background. Their nonverbal facial expressions are seen by the audience, who are viewing the advertisement face-to-face. By positioning the central image of the animal in the center, the audience is connecting immediately with the subject of the ad, in this case, the animal that is staring back at them. Aristotelian Appeals (Ethos, Pathos, Logos), Image Design and Colors The advertisement campaign is incorporating the use of emotion through images and combining colors to overlay the message of having social responsibility and having sympathy for the various animals used during circuses (Pathos). For example, the main color scheme is black with white text on the left and the logo design on the bottom right corner of the ad. This dark color creates a tone of sadness and even though the white color from the text stands out, it combines to create a gray tone which indicates the loss of something or not being active. This relates with the animals’ feelings of despair and loss of purpose to actually fight. This, in turn, creates a sense of connection between the audience and the animal. The advertising companies are implementing the fact that animals need to have a voice as well and should have rights. Creating this emotional connection with the animal and audience, individuals are able to see that the animal is not just another performer in a circus attraction meant to entertain thousands of people at once. In addition, the clown makeup represents the association with a clown figure and the sentiment of the animal itself, including its own outside expression. The audience’s attention is focused on the bright colors of the clown makeup on the animals’ faces. Even though each animal has clown makeup on their faces, the advertising company strategically decided to incorporate color tones and palettes for each respective animal, in addition to the compartment they are detained in. For example, the baby seal is painted with gray and black color tones to emphasize the seal’s gray-dark skin color combination. On the other hand, the chimpanzee has brighter colors to contrast the already dark skin tone of the animal’s face. Creating a lighter and brighter color scheme brings focus into the central facial expression of the chimpanzee. The lion’s face is also painted using bright tones so the clown makeup can stand out from the rest of the animal’s facial features. The clown makeup makes up the overall significance of the advertisement and it needs to have characteristics in place to relay the central message to the audience. Furthermore, a clown performing in a circus is seen as happy, outgoing, but also seen as not taken seriously or regarded as unimportant in a sense. In stating that “animals are not clowns,” the advertisement campaign is showing how an animal is treated as being irrelevant to the social responsibility of a society and its individuals. Creating that connection between clown and animal, the images propose that an animal is seen as “clownish” with no respect from others. In turn, the facial expressions are differentiated by the overlay of what an animal is actually feeling. An animal being constantly trained and submitted to performing conditions, they have feelings of sorrow and helplessness. By applying content clown makeup features such as a wide, thick smile and lifted eyebrows, their true facial expressions are hidden behind that makeup.

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