What are Bio-Resources? –
Bio resources can be defined as those resources which are non-fossil in nature. They are used for different purposes for example; Industries, Domestic, for food and for other energy purposes.
They occur in the nature in different forms like, Microbes, Plants, Animals, their genetic material and by-products, but no inclusion of human genetic material.
They are categorized into different types, i.e.
a) Primary Bio resource – These are natural, directly obtained from the nature. For example; Wood, Potato, Bamboo, etc…
b) Secondary Bio resource – These are generated during primary processing, in industrial processing as residues. These are generated by employing different processes like mechanical, biological, chemical and physical to obtain the product for further use. These are generated in large numbers.
c) Tertiary Bio resource – These are like secondary bio resource obtained through processing. But in small quantities. Sometimes, they are generated due to the degradation due to long storage. For example, in kitchens, restaurants, during large scale processing and during maintenance of gardens, etc.…
d) Quaternary Bio resource – These resources are either short term or long term. Short term, for example; human feces, urine and animal excrements. The already generated material, reused falls in the long term category.
These resources are useful in creating a sustainable environment as they are natural and do not pollute the environment in a harmful way.
Need and Relevance –
Due to rapid and growing urbanization, the air we breathe, the products we use, have become severely polluted, be it agricultural products or the packaged products. In the midst, Bio resources provide a sign of hope and belief to create a clean and livable environment and products to choose and rely upon. People have been using different bio resources such as wood or dried manure to heat their houses and for cooking for several thousand years. There are different types of bio resource, for example; Agricultural Wastes and Residues, Food Crops, Plantation Crops Waste, etc., used for the production of different types of Bio-Fuels, i.e. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Bio-Fuels.
They have several applications in society to fulfill. They are:-
· Electricity Generation, and
· Heat Generation.
So, to become sustainable and for long-term future growth, it becomes imperative for industries and other sectors of the economy to adopt and practice methods that can improve the efficiency and productivity, thereby reducing the dependency on fossil fuels.
Objectives of the Project –
· Understanding the technology used for converting these by-products waste into bio-fuels.
· To understand and analyze the whole process of carrying out the conversion of waste into bio-fuel from end to end.
· To study the challenges and opportunities in the production of biofuels from agricultural wastes.
Aim of the Project –
The project aims:-
· To understand different kinds of biofuels that can be produced from the agricultural wastes, specifically the rice crop residue like straw and husk.
· Technologies developed for the production
· To study the agricultural waste bio resource for the production of biofuel and the industry associated.
· The target group being benefitted due to the production of biofuel and the further implications in the society at large.
It is a fuel derived directly or indirectly from organic material, either animal or plant wastes or materials. These are produced from renewable biomass material, not from fossil fuel materials and are available for most of the time.
Biofuels can be derived from agricultural crops and residues, from forestry, fishery, and municipal wastes as well as from agro-industry, food industry and food service by-products and wastes.
Types of Bio-Fuel –
There are three major types of Bio-Fuel.
But, mostly referred as liquid fuel. Based on the types, further classified as-
· Primary – Organic materials are used in an unprocessed form for heating, cooking, and electricity production. Example – Fuelwood, wood chips, pellets.
· Secondary – These result from the processing of biomass and organic material, mostly include Liquid and Gaseous bio-fuels, Example – Ethanol, Biodiesel, Biogas, etc…
Out of all three Liquid Bio-fuels are frequently produced and used for transport and other industrial purposes. They are:-
i. Ethanol, ( produced from corn and sugarcane)
ii. Biodiesel, (Vegetable Oil and Animal Fat, produced by combining either of two with alcohol and a catalyst through a chemical process, Transesterification.
iii. Green Diesel (derived from algae and plant sources).