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Two companies I have chosen to research are Jaguar Land
Rover and G.B Electrical Engineering.

1)   Electricity at work regulations 1989
(EAWR): This regulation relates to both my chosen companies as
both companies have advanced and large technology which use high voltages and
are potentially dangerous if mishandled or misused. As Jaguar Land Rover cars
come equipped with numerous techs that run on thousands of lines of code then
it’s required that they inspect for hazards or defects or that they check the
capability and strength of their equipment to ensure there is no malfunction
and that they are not exceeding the limitations the equipment has. The
regulation examples could be having safety features and having a safety risk.
New devices use complicated electronic systems, so equipment should have the
European conformity marker (CE) and be PAT tested. The load of the equipment
and fault conditions should be made aware of and equipment need suitable
safeguards and protected devices. Electrical items have protection against
overloads such as automatically disconnecting the circuit and the fuse will
blow. Training has to be provided and only trained personal should maintain the
equipment as the commissioning and testing of the equipment is dangerous if
done incorrectly. There should be no live voltage going through the system when
maintenance is occurring, and the equipment should be stored and used in a
place where the environment would have limited effect. Equipment should be
placed away from heat and chemicals and inspections should be done regularly
and detailed records should be kept for future analysis and repair. The British
Standard Codes of Practice should be followed when inspecting and maintaining
the equipment.

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Jaguar Land Rover: Equipment have been PAT
tested, and any maintenance test are done in accordance with EU Legislation.
Any tasks and work activities carried out is done in a way that reduces risks.

G.B Electrical Engineering: Electrical
equipment have protective devices and employees have been trained to understand
the risks a system can create to themselves and the public.



2)   Personal protective equipment at work
regulations 1992: As both companies have CEO/Directors then they
could be personally liable if an accident occurs therefore they would make sure
the regulations are assessed and enforced. As both companies work around
electrical equipment or dangerous equipment then specialised equipment is
necessary. These are things like hi-vis vests or helmets or safety boots. This
regulation ensures the employees receive PPE without charge. While the PPE has
to be specialised for the intended use, information should also be provided on how
to use equipment and all equipment has to be fit-tested prior to being used as
this would lower the risk of accidents as the equipment wouldn’t be too large
and loose or too small.

Jaguar Land Rover: This Company provides
personal protective equipment for all employees such as ear defenders and
footwear as the noise level is quite high due to the high number of employees
and noise from machines.

G.B Electrical Engineering: This company
also provides personal protective equipment without charge as it is a mandatory
requirement for any company. Face masks, gloves and other equipment are given
to employees to ensure their safety,

3)   Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
Regulations 2002 (COSHH): This relates to both companies as both
use machinery that could create harmful substances such as biological agents or
dust. This relates to the PPE regulation in that substances that come from the
machines such as exhaust fumes need specialised equipment to be manufactured
and to be in working order to reduce risks. Employers should identify the
hazards and limit the amount given by providing control measures. These have to
be enforced and kept in good working order and after figuring out the best way
to prevent harm to health, a risk assessment should be made. Information and
training should be given as well as having planned for emergencies. Employees
should be monitored along with the harmful substances emitted from the

Land Rover: Control measures are in place such as ventilation and this is monitored
constantly, and training is provided on how to limit the harmful substances,
the type of hazard that is produced and what to do in an emergency.

Electrical Engineering: Control measures and training is also provided along
with access to safety data sheets and are informed in future changes in
processes and substances used.

4)   The? ?Workplace? ?(Health,? ?Safety? ?and?
?Welfare)? ?Regulations? ?1992: This regulations purpose is to
ensure employers create a safe, clean and danger free work environment. The
requirements for this regulation is to provide a workplace, where tasks can be
done in a suitable area with no hazards unaccounted for. Employers must provide
adequate lighting, ventilation, heating, personnel facilities, toilets, washing
room, refreshments, secure walkways, work stations and more. Equipment also has
to be maintained along with equipment devices and systems. 

Jaguar Land Rover: When working on site,
employees are provided with necessities and safety equipment. Lighting is at an
adequate level to not cause blindness or too low as to not being aware of their
surroundings and their work.

G.B Electrical Engineering: Employees are
provided with facilities such as canteens and safe walkways which are
highlighted in yellow lines.

5)   Manual handling operations regulations
1992 (MHO):  As both
companies have large equipment or machinery that would need to be moved then it
is required that they choose the most suitable person for the job whether the
reason being they are physically capable or have had the training to do so. It
is still necessary to have a safety risk and to assess how to deal with the
situation to minimise injuries and accidents. If lifting off the floor then
correct form is needed to avoid injury. As this regulation is for employees who
lift, carry and move equipment/load physically. Moving equipment by hand is
both taxing and has a high risk of injuries and accidents therefore it is
paramount employers reduce the need of any manual handling operations. To
minimise the risks, employers are required to limit manual handling tasks and
to avoid any tasks altogether if possible. Training is needed and has to be
provided as well as the information of the weight of load. The specifications
have to include any appropriate information and prior to the lift being made;
an assessment has to be carried out in order to endure maximum safety. They
also have to provide past incident/accident reports and the technique needed to
minimise injury. The assessment should also cover where the item is being
moved, any obstacles and people on or off the premise. Employees have the right
to refuse dangerous/unsafe if they see risks and can report their
manager/employer if they are being forced or pressured to complete the task.
Employees should do their own assessment and evaluate the task given before
proceeding and they should make use of all information given.

Jaguar Land Rover: For this company,
employers are required to perform assessments and evaluations and to give
training on how to perform the tasks.

G.B Electrical Engineering: This Company
has to follow the same regulations due to being a UK company also; therefore
they provide training and will give reports and information when needed.

6)   Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment
Regulations 1998 (LOLER): With both companies having lifting
equipment then this regulation is needed and has to be followed. This
regulation ensures that all machinery has to be maintained and to be used for
their specific purpose only. As well as being used for their specific purpose
it is important that only competent and trained people use the machines. LOLER
ensures that the machinery is strong and suitable for its given task and has
clear indications of its safe working load. It has to be positioned and installed
in a safe, obstacle free way to minimise risks. Most equipment that lifts or
lowers loads are covered by this regulation, however this is only where the
health and safety work act applies.

Jaguar Land Rover: This company regularly
maintains their equipment and only uses them for their intended purpose.

G.B Electrical Engineering: Equipment is
maintained also and only employees who have been trained use the equipment.

Provision and Use of
Work Equipment Regulations (PUWER): PUWERs primary objective is that anyone using
machinery does it in a safe working environment. It is used for machinery that
is used regularly as well as any other equipment used daily. It has another
function that the equipment is inspected by an appropriate worker regularly and
that risk assessments are carried out. This should be done monthly or when any
issues occur and a report should be kept. This provides a higher level of
safety and as the machine would be in better condition, more work could be
done. This reduces the risks of injuries, incidents and fatalities. It requires
employees to be protected from machinery by providing suitable guards, warning
devices and control devices (emergency stop button) and that appropriate information,
training and instructions are given. The regulation is covered by almost any
equipment which is used at work including and not limited to hammers, ladders,
photocopiers and vehicles. It ensures appropriate measures such as the
maintenance of machinery to be performed when the equipment is shut down or
that dangerous objects are not a risk. This could be done as if a knife was to
be sharpened then it could be done by machinery rather than hand or that is
clamped in a vice. The regulation has to be followed by anyone using equipment
and they have a legal responsibility to adhere to the regulations. This
regulation applies to farms, factories and more. Risk assessments and
appropriate information, instructions and training should be provided.

Land Rover: Risk assessments are carried out as well as detailed records of
issues and maintenance checks. The safety of the equipment is checked as well
as how suitable the equipment is for the employee.

Electrical Engineering: Risk assessments are also carried out as well as
ensuring safety devices are fitted to the machinery to provide protection and
training is given along with instruction and information.


– HSE Websites

law website

website –


Task 2 – P2

Land Rover

There are different people
responsible for health and safety for Jaguar Land Rover such as: the CEO and
board of directors, the company director, health and safety director/manager/executive
and lastly employees who take care of themselves individually.

For this company, there is a CEO and a board of directors.
As they have the most stakes in the company they are the most responsible and
liable for any injuries or accidents that occur. They assess the regulations
and make sure that it is being enforced and also ensure that any and all
business actions coincide with health and safety regulations. An example of
this could be purchasing new equipment without assessing the capabilities or
falsifying details and record of machinery maintenance to save money.

Company directors: Their general roles include engaging and
interacting with the workforce to promote and achieve safe and healthy
conditions. They oversee the health and safety governance process, while
co-ordinating and ensuring adequate health and safety resources are provided.
They ensure training is provided and safety concerns are dealt with.

Health and Safety Managers: They have a key role in health
and safety and are accountable for any injuries or accidents that happen. They
advise the directors in all matters concerning health and safety and routinely
inspect and update the premises in regards to the new regulations. They have to
be knowledgeable on legislations and regulations and they receive frequent
training to improve their role in the company. As they perform the assessments,
they also advise on any improvement or changes to PPE. They improve the policy
for health and safety and show enthusiasm for health and safety.

 Health and Safety Managers/Supervisors:
They are the primary employers and have the most contact and communication with
the workers. Their primary responsibilities include: ensuring employees know
and have health and safety training, are knowledgeable on health and safety and
that health and safety notices and procedures can be seen. This includes the
safety policy and the first aider’s names and locations. They do the risk
assessments and notify the employees of potential hazards, and they also assist
employees in any concerns they have. They set an example for employees by
showing safety precautions. They set control measures and bring forward
concerns and reports to the board of directors at regular intervals. They
ensure communications between employers and employees are maintained and that
the health, safety and welfare are understood by employers and employees.

Health and safety executives: They perform risk assessments
and outline dangers and areas which need improvement. They test equipment and
ensure their safety before use and they make sure legislations are being
followed. They keep up with the new regulations and attend health and safety
seminars. They manage the hazardous substances and report incidents and

Employees: Workers and employees follow the Health and
Safety at Work Regulations 1992 (MHSWR) and are held accountable for any
mistakes they are responsible for. They also have the responsibility to report
and refuse and harmful or dangerous work, use correct tools and have the
correct training. They carry out tasks in a safe manner and keep the equipment
in good condition. They have to wear PPE and be aware of the workplace
condition and have knowledge of the equipment they use such as suitability for
the task and the operating conditions.

Electrical Engineering

There are different people responsible for health and
safety for G.B Electrical Engineering such as: managing director, health and
safety director/manager, safety advisors and lastly employees who take care of
themselves individually.

Managing director: The managing director has many different
roles. Some of which include, setting an example for health and safety conduct
and to manage resources for the welfare of facilities and equipment. Minimizing
risk, injuries and damages through planning and ensuring all employees have received
training and are knowledgeable in safety is another responsibility for managing
directors. They also issue disciplinary action when health and safety workplace
issues occur and any failures that arise from this.

Health and Safety director: The have many different
responsibilities such as promoting enthusiasm for health and safety and
reviewing and amending the company’s codes of standard practice for health and
safety.  They have to monitor the level
of safety in the workplace considering injuries, accidents or hazards. They then
have to act on any issues found in a timely and suitable way as they are accountable
for health and safety department and their roles include the management of
preventing incidents.

Health and Safety Manager: Their typical roles and
responsibilities include ensuring all employees are working to the company’s
code of standard practice as well as regulations and legislations. They manage
the operation of the welfare, training and health and safety departments within
the company whilst promoting and ensuring enthusiasm remains high. They review
the safety record and aim to improve any concerns by carrying regular interval
inspections and to show progress and issues to their superiors. Other responsibilities
would be being involved with employee training and investigating any incidents
that happen. All sub-contractors work is assigned by the health and safety manager
and contracts for safety plans, statements and any work that is being done is
helped being created by the manager.

Safety? ?Advisor?: The safety advisor responsibilities include
carrying out risk assessments and highlighting hazards that can be improved and
to create posters, reports and notices. They ensure all work done and employees
follow regulations and they advise employees in welfare and safety matters. They
keep records for incidents and prepare action plans to stop those issues occurring
again. They perform regular inspections to check procedures and that equipment
is installed correctly. The disposal of hazardous substances and leading the
training on health and safety is managed by the safety advisor. Keeping up to
date with regulations is another responsibility for the health and safety

?Employees?: It’s the employee’s responsibility to use
their training and instructions given when performing any work task and they
take care of their own health using common sense however they also take care of
other people’s safety. This is done by cleaning the work area and equipment
after use among other things as a tidy workplace is safer whereas tools or chemicals
can be dangerous and harmful if it is not correctly stored. Communication and
co-operation between employer and supervisor is a responsibility for both as
hazards need to be addressed and have been made aware of. They have to wear the
PPE given and have to get new personal protective equipment if it becomes damaged.


HSE Website

Task 3 – M1

If a health and safety legislation had been breached in
Jaguar Land Rover then the company and those responsible could be sued and
would be personally liable and could be prosecuted. If a machine had not been
correctly maintained or had been bought damaged and was not repaired then they
could also love their license and cannot have any health and safety role in any
job. As almost all management jobs require some health and safety
responsibilities then they could not progress even if they moved to another
company. As safety managers carry out inspections they would be found
incompetent as they didn’t report the damaged equipment or fix it. As they have
a direct involvement in equipment then they would be the most liable. They
would also be under scrutiny as well as managers for not giving adequate
instructions. There is also a chance they could be given a notice with a given
deadline and failure to comply or improve would result in a prosecution. They
could also be told to stop their activities and their personal and business
finances could be audited to check for any further misdoings.

If the health and safety legislation is breached, then the
health and safety manager would be the most responsible and could face a fine
up to £20,000. Although the manger would face most of the penalties, any
individual or group that had broken the law or had been deliberate in their negligence
of carrying out procedures would then be imprisoned and have endless number of
fines. If their negligence caused injury or if the regulations had not been
carried out accordingly then the punishment would increase accordingly.

Any breach regarding health and safety are dealt with the
health and safety executive, inspectors and local authority officers. The person
or persons found responsible could be issued with an improvement notice rather
than be prosecuted and this notice gives a time period of 21 days to improve
the breach and any other issues that have occurred, although this could be
extended if necessary. A notice could also halt any business activity within
the time limit and could be ordered to stop immediately if an emergency occurred.
If this notice had been disregarded or any more issues occur, then fines and
prosecutions will be carried out.

Notices can be appealed by employers through a tribunal and
employees can make a claim against their employer if they had become injured
during work. This can only be done if the employer was at fault by not
providing suitable PPE or welfare such as adequate lightning among other
things. Employers have an obligatory responsibility to abide to the law and
regulations. Their legal responsibilities include creating a safe and secure
workplace and notifying superiors and officials if any misconduct had been
knowingly performed.

Any incident or accident that had occurred would affect the
running of the company in several ways. Some of these include a loss of staff,
lower level of productivity and higher repair cost and a lower level of morale.
Staff loss occurs when members have been injured or labour turnover increases
due to welfare or health and safety issues. The decline in productivity can
happen through product lines being stopped or employees becoming distracted and
having a slower work rate. The reputation of the business can be affected by
accidents as it would become less trustworthy to potential investors, so shares
would be sold and would be at a lower price, affecting the financial aspect of
the business. Repair costs affect businesses as damages could be substantial,
along with compensation costs if a claim is made. The biggest issue to the
running of the company would be financial issues due to accidents. Paying for
medical costs or purchasing new equipment decreases profit and lawsuits affect a
business through various ways. Consumers and costumers could boycott and not
use the business products and purchase from a different company giving their
competitors an advantage.


How A Workplace Accident Can Affect A Business


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