This chapter presents some important
information required. These include the background of the study, statements of
the problems, purpose of the study, significant of the study, scope and
limitation, and definition of the key terms. Each section will be exposed
communication is one of the basic elements needed by English as Foreign
Language (EFL) students in Indonesia. This is because the broad use of English
spread in many sectors such as education, business, mass media, technology, and
etc. Further, in education purpose, the ability to communicate is highly required for students at tertiary level. The students
in this level may contact with some sources and materials delivered in English
by lecturers and convey their ideas in the classroom discussion. In line with
this, the need for English in the fifties and sixties is expressed in the 1967
Ministerial decree as cited in Huda (1997, Pp. 283) “The goals of English
language teaching at the university level are they can read textbooks and
reference materials written in English which constitute 90% of the total
existing reference, to follow lectures delivered by foreign lecturers as part
of collaboration with universities abroad or to communicate individually with
foreigners, to make notes of lectures given by foreign lecturers, to introduce
Indonesian culture to other nations, and to communicate with lecturers and
fellow students orally”. In addition, Crosling (2014, Pp. 01) argued that the major needs of college students is
the oral communication progress that might be managed in curricula and lesson design in order to
complete the objective of university and future graduates before coming to the
Continue as the
vital needs, English oral communication becomes the core for undergraduate students
to involve in the future career. It is due to their early period to have a good
job. Many of them who have levelheaded of oral communication may be able to
preserve the prosperity in the work place. Aziz (2003, Pp. 143) claimed that
the growth of English use in many areas is supported by the increasing number
of teenagers joining English forums or company trainings, radio broad-castings,
and news casts. In addition, the growth is also determined by the maturity of
tourism objects which usually demand quite a lot of work forces as tourist
agents, resort employees, and many other experts with the requirement of being
aptitude of fluent English communication. Oral communication is considered to
be a core aspect of employability, Knight and Yorke (2006)
With regards to the fact that English is the
prominent key for university students gets into workplaces, UMM as a private Islamic
university in Malang has designed compulsory subjects of Speaking I until
Speaking IV to be included in the learning process in accordance with the
urgent needs of English in succeeding their survival in work places. The time
allocated for studying is 100 minutes for 2 credits and it is expected to give a wide
range of opportunity for students to practice their English, such as
in the form of discussion, in the classroom. The aims of this subject
are to cover students’ oral
skill with materials compiled
from different sources and to train their ability to speak in many kinds of activity. Technically, the total of 20 students in the
classroom is given an individual opportunity to perform their speaking skill in
approximately 15 minutes every meeting (English Department Lecture). According
to Widiati and Cahyono (2006, Pp. 277) the teaching of English speaking in
Indonesia is using the approach of building students’ communication that will
extend to the learning movement by performing cooperation among students.
Besides, the students’ oral communication can
be improved by having several English exposures. It means some experiences
which acquired from many sources to improve English language, in this case is
oral communication. According to Cobas and Chan (2001, pp. 80) “language
development is a complex, dynamic process influenced by the child’s age,
language exposure and social interactions”. The exposure can be obtained not
only inside classroom but also outside of classroom. Both of them can
contribute better oral communication progress. According to Scolverket (2006)
as cited in Macleod and larrson (2011, pp. 06) “language use inside the
classroom works as a stimulus for many students when it comes to the informal
learning of English outside the school, whilst to other students it can have
the opposite effect, that of informal English working as a stimulant for classroom English”.
Meanwhile, the learning process inside the
classroom might be the teachers’ attention to expose students’ English oral
communication by establishes the Interaction between the teacher and the
students or among the students. The interaction might be effective if teachers
serve innovative instruction to stimulate students’ curiosity to respond the
questions and materials based on the relevant topic. Krashen and Terrell (1995,
Pp. 69) Suggested that student’s oral communication encouraged by teachers
function in creating the instruction in the term of topic nearest to students’
natural setting. More, Dislen (2013) on his study stated that students would be
reluctant to learn English if teachers started with many task and monotonous
teaching instead of asking them to communicate in English and introduce new
Based on the researcher preliminary on students
speaking achievement and interview with some students, it was found that there
are 14 students from 3 speaking classes obtain “A” score. It is assumed their
ability in oral communication is classified as high proficiency in term of
fluency, vocabulary range, comprehension and structure. Adams in Iwashita
(2010, Pp. 01) investigated the “relationship between the five factors that
were identified in assessing Test of Speaking, they are accent, comprehension,
vocabulary, fluency and grammar, and speaking score by analyzing analytic and
overall score data drawn from test performances”. Additionally, the interview
result shows students propounded a good attitude toward speaking class due to
the challenge from the teachers backing their ability to speak with various
contexts. Students confessed that teachers as role model help their ability to
communicate to be evolved by imitated them with new vocabulary and right
the students agree that the time for speaking in two credits is unsatisfactory
to complete their oral learning needs. The present practice in the classroom
insists them to train their speaking skill on conveying meaning on certain
topics and solving cases in English within a very limited time. The limitation
makes the learning activities, such as pair or group discussions and getting
feedback from classmates or lecturers, a little bit impossible to be
successful. It is due to the existing condition that few of students did not
have the same chance to explore what they have and what they want to show. Even
some students hesitated to express ideas and finally decided not to join the
discussion and only listened passively to their friends and lecturer, instead.
According to Shteiwi and Hamuda (2016, Pp. 24) in their research, about 72 % of
students agree that the occasion for teaching the speaking skill at English
department is inadequate to help them practice their speaking skill. In
addition, Dardjowidjojo (2000) as cited in Imperiani (2012, Pp. 03) stated that
English department curricula composition should evolve equal opportunity in
“language skill” and “theoretical knowledge”. Furthermore, students
are highly aware that in order to achieve better performance of their English,
they need to make some attempts outside classroom to practice speaking fluently
and comprehensively. Thus,
the implementation formal learning cannot be separated by students’ independent
practice out-of classroom. Students’ determination to motivate awareness to
expose themselves in kinds of own learning might increase their English oral
ability. They earned some kind of exposures, for instance joining English
forum, games, You Tube, conducting small group conversation, and self-practice
in front of mirror. They admitted those activities enrich their knowledge to
develop better oral communication. Based on Huang (2010, Pp. 08) discussed that the students who actively
expose to both inside and outside classroom become more proficient in speaking
than students who do not do it. Marian
et al. (2007) stated that there are several activities outside classroom to
improve students’ English language, such as interaction with family and friends
and reading books, watching TV, and listening to the radio.
There has been some research conducted on the issue of
the importance of out-of-class exposure. Perez and Tenorio (2013)
conducted experimental research on the effect of Out-of-Class Language Learning
(OCLL) in English Communicative Competence at Spanish students from Colombia
where the experiment group controlled by English instruction and took place in
cafeteria, library, sport field and school restaurant. As the result, the OCLL
affecting students’ positive attitude in increasing their communicative
competence and the tradition method inside the classroom contributed to
students’ grammatical competence. Others, Guo (2011) also studied the Impact of
an Out-of-class Activity on Students’ English Awareness, Vocabulary, and
Autonomy by providing the programs called English Detective Activity. In this
study, students were asked to observe and take notes on written English usage
in real-life contexts for example English signs or words on the street or on
products they used every day.
Thus, the program conducted due to that students paid very little attention to
the English used in their daily lives. Hence, after the activity, students
upgrade their awareness in the form of English in entire environment. It shows
the potential value effect out-of-class activities to enhance learning outside
of school and to succeed autonomous learning. Additionally, Coskun (2016) in
his study investigated the preferred out-of-class speaking activities which
were carried out twice per week for six weeks by first-year EFL students at a
university in Turkey; the study aims to discover the benefits of these
activities as perceived by the participating students. The chosen activities
include the following: Fantasy Role-Playing, Continuous Story, Debate, Radio
Program, Broadcasting on Periscope. The study expressed the benefit of the
activities contributed to their fluency, vocabulary and pronunciation
development as well as problem solving skills. Also, the activities were
thought to be useful for their self-confidence, critical thinking skills and
for their general knowledge. Besides, MacLeod and Larsson (2011) in their study
on Exposure to English language between ages of 14 and 16 experienced in
Swedish school found that students received English in their leisure time
commonly from music, television and film. Unfortunately, they lack of space to
exposed English orally. Along with, the course inside the classroom did not
supported students’ interest.
It seems that much research has focused on
the role of out-of class exposure to raise English Language competence. Hence,
the previous study did the experimental research on their study by controlled
students with program which can advantages to students’ English ability. Some
found that students lack opportunity to speak in their community and students
less attention to the language message around them. In accordance with the
explanation above, the researcher still interested to find more out-of class
exposure. The present research aims at investigating the students’
exposure strategies to
self-acquire oral communication performed by the high-achieving students of
English Department, UMM. It is
considered that students cannot acquire speaking instantly without any
exposures to improve it.
1.2 Statement of the problems
Based on the background above, the researcher
formulates the problems for this study as follow:
are oral communication exposures strategy out-side classroom experienced by
high speaking achievement
How do their strategies of self-improving the
English exposure help them in achieving their fluent oral skill of English?
1.3 Purposes of the Study
In line with the research question, the
purposes of this study are:
To know the English exposure strategy
experienced by high achievement students’ in self-improving to achieve better in their fluent oral skill of English.
1.4 Significant of the Study
This research is expected to provide models for other
students to achieve better communication competence level. Ushioda
(2008, p. 25) as cited in Zhao
(2013) states, “motivation in speaking
develops through social participation and interaction”. It means that
the more exposure to oral communication
in foreign language, the more opportunities for them to become motivated in
It is hoped to increase teachers’ understanding about outside class exposure
strategy by high proficient students in their oral communication. Richards
(2014) teachers may also need to acquire the skills needed to guide their
learners in effective ways of using out-of-class learning to support their
Last, it is expected to be used as references to the
others researcher who are interesting in conducting
the research on
English exposure in the others skills and the frequency of exposures use in
differences students with various level of study.
1.5 Scope and Limitation
focuses on the exposures of oral communication skill experienced by high proficient students of English major. The study limits the
students registered in sixth semesters considering their experiences
in speaking class I until IV with high score in speaking. According to Bell (2011) as cited in Coskun
(2016), students who are involved in out-of-class learning activities can be
rewarded to encourage other students to continue the language learning process
outside the classroom.
1.6 Definition of the Key Term
It is necessary to give a clear definition of
some key terms used
in this study to avoid misunderstanding on some conceptual terms that might
occur later on. The following definition is helpful:
1. Out-of-class exposure strategy refers to students’ experiences in acquiring language
in this case is oral communication that they got from the acquaintance of English language out-of the classroom.
2. High speaking achievers are the students who have fluency, good
pronunciation, much vocabulary; their language can be accepted by listener and
easy to understand. It can be seen from their marks from Speaking I until Speaking IV
by obtaining score “A”,
numeral 4 as the highest score.
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