this Why and to what extent do certain practical applications of music operate within the brain?Short Introduction to the topic (not sure if this is necessary, given the required longer introduction which I have not yet sorted out)With a myriad of practical applications, music is often the unpredictable yet vastly applicable device to a variety of situations. Music can be used as a form of therapy, as a teaching technique, and as a way of influencing human behavior. Music therapy is the application of music to treat disorders or conditions such as asthma (by calming the heart) or improving conditions for those with motor disabilities to regain their walking pattern (by using the rhythm of music to influence behavior). The key to understanding how and why these applications operate is found within the human brain. The engagement the music has with the neurochemical systems results in feelings of reward, motivation, pleasure, and stress relief among many other things. These are where the practicality is actualize. Importance of the topic is clear when considering factors such as the medical fields that benefit greatly from a new approach to treatment. The unique and remarkably applicable interaction between music and the brain allows for unforeseen applications in areas that are desperately in need of such practicality. How music is used practically – backgroundMedical instances influences are an imperative part to the practical use of music. Music has been found to reduced effects of induced sedation following an intensive medical procedure in addition to reducing physical pain. The Mozart effect is the use of Mozart’s classical music to relax the brain, which can be especially useful in a number of situations, especially with regard to epilepsy. In asthma episodes, music can be used to calm the heart-rate and bring vitals levels back to a standard rate. Sleep patterns and weight gain can also be influenced by music with its ability to influence the processes of the mind. Music and rhythm-based therapy to facilitate movement for those with motor disabilities, which is especially useful in scenarios dealing with Parkinson’s patients who can use the rhythm of music to develop a gait, or walking pattern based on an acquired understanding of rhythms and patterns as a result of listening to music.Behavioral influences are another common effect of music listening. People cite emotional impact and regulation as two of the main reasons why they listen to music, validating the importance of understanding how this works. Emotional impact is facilitated and encouraged mainly by immersion in the music. Without this immersion, music is less likely to be so effective in any case.If one experiences trait absorption, this means they have an inclination to find themselves immersed in certain actions, including music listening. If one undergoes state absorption, they simply find themselves immersed in a particular moment and, unlike those with trait absorption, don’t have a disposition to these circumstances. Aim: to investigate the influence of state and trait absorption upon preference for music, especially that which evokes negative emotions. Participants: 128 asked to listen to two pieces of self selected music and rate on variables including preference and felt or expressed emotions. Method: participants selected music they found either powerful or boring and were asked a series of questions largely revolving around their opinions of the music and their experienced emotional states.They also were to rate their state absorption by using a 7-point scale, selecting a number based on either of the extremes: 0 being distracted by the extraneous impressions or events and 6 being completely absorbed in the experience. For trait absorption rating data, the participants would record the frequency with which they have certain experiences, such as being moved by poetic language. Results: state absorption was strongly positively correlated with music preference, and trait absorption was not. Trait absorption was related to preference for negative emotions in music. Of the 68 who selected highly loved music, 24 felt high negative emotions, whereas 49 reported low evocation negative emotions. High trait absorption leads to higher likelihood of high negative emotions while listening to loved music. Feeling of negative emotion is a significant predictor of preference in high trait absorption but not in low trait absorption individuals. High trait absorption = enjoy negative emotion in music. Discussion: state absorption is more important for in-the-moment enjoyment, whereas trait absorption is more important in predicting individual preference for music evoking negative emotions. Trait = determining preference based on emotional (negative) context. State = enjoyment. “Research suggests” people with an openness to new experiences tend to prefer music that is complex, while extroverts like music that is energetic and rhythmic. (Rentfrow PJ, Gosling SD). Others think events and psychological/cultural factors influence preference formation more than personality.Trait absorption is a disposition for having episodes of total attention that fully engage representational resources (tellegen and atkinson). This endpoint, alone, is known as state absorption. Roche and McConkey – the relationship between absorption and liking may be mediated by personal involvement of a cognitive or an emotional kind with the attentional object.Kreutz et al – high trait absorption meant more intense emotional reactions in response to the music than those with low trait absorption. Trait absorption was positively correlated with arousal induced by music, highest correlation for sadness inducing music. Garrido and Schubert – they collected trait absorption data and asked participants the extent to which they enjoy sad music. There was a linear relationship between trait absorption and liking sad music. (The more “into-it” you are, the more you may like/appreciate/connect with sad music). Schubert – negative emotions can be enjoyed in musical context because the displeasure is “switched off” in such a context, allowing the emotions to become activated without displeasurable effects. Music is liked more if the emotion expressed matches the emotions evoked. Because of knowledge such as this relating to variables influencing musical preference, some musicians tailor music for specific individuals with regard to therapy or music intended to be used in an attempt to provoke productivity. Music elicits intense pleasure and feelings of euphoria in the listener. Chill-inducing music results in a significant increase in rCBF, specifically that in the reward regions of the brain such as the mesocorticolimbic system. Relaxing music can reduce stress levelsFrom the music standpoint, what goes into making an effectively applicable sound?Understanding the reasons behind music’s practicality is vital to developing an Music’s practicality isn’t by chance or by mysticism; there are specific aspects of music that result in the effective applications. Stimulating music mimics nature sounds, and reward anticipation is associated with high frequency, short motif calls from many species. Relaxing music mimics soothing natural sounds such as maternal vocalizations, purring and cooing, etc.Musicophilia – music imagery is important to the effectiveness, in which some visualize music, often resulting in an ear-worm development.Interactions between music and the brain (likely the bulk of the essay for conclusion drawings and such)Music may affect the same neurochemical systems of reword as other stimuli do, studies suggest. Neuroimaging technology has allowed examination of dopamine release during the experience of pleasurable music. PET scans – Music has been recorded as increase regional cerebral blood flow in the ventral striatum and midbrain, nucleus accumbens(NAc), the insula, the hippocampus, the medial prefrontal cortex, and other locations, the thalamus, cerebellum, anterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. It has also been recorded to lower rCBF in the amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and temporal poles as a result of the pleasant music. fMRI Scans – pleasurable music associated with NAc, ventral tegmental area (VTA), known to influence autonomic, emotional, and general cognitive functions. Conclusions include finding a correlation between emotional and cognitive systems during musical pleasure. The correlation can be found in the brain between the orbitofrontal cortex and the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic circuitry. Reward due to music relies on on dopaminergic neurotransmission Stress reductions are a result of the ability of music to influence stress hormone levels along the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Guided Imagery and Music (GIM), a method of therapeutically applying specifically classical music in addition to implementing relation techniques, has been found to reduce HPA activation. Techno music was found to increase plasma cortisol, ACTH, prolactin, growth hormon and norepinephrine levels, consistent with heightened HPA axis and sympathetic nervous system activity. Temporal interaction is important to re-emergence of healthy levels of 1/f structure related to human gait (walking pattern) which is helpful for treating parkinson’s patients. “Relaxing music” (generally considered to have slow tempo, low pitch, and no lyrics) can be used to reduce stress and anxiety (daniel levitin). Part of the reason, in addition to the description of the music, is because music can provide a distraction and can modulate mood. Khalfa et al – rapid lowering of cortisol levels after listening to relaxing music compared to silence. Knight and Rickard – measured salivary cortisol 20 minutes following a stressor. No influence there, but did prevent stress induced increases in heart rate and systolic blood pressure compared to silence. Stimulating music produces increases in cardiovascular measures, while relaxing music produces decreases. Slow music and pauses = decrease in heart rate, respiration and blood pressure. Faster music = increase in theseWhat can we gain and conclude from this, and why is it important?