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This chapter, aids us to grasp how Britain turned into a multi-racial
society against the wishes of its politicians and a large proportion of its
people. James Hampshire (2005) delves into the politics of immigration in
post-war Britain and brings to light how unease about public health service and
welfare scrounging impacts government policy and changes made in the law. Hampshire
(2005) puts forward the argument that radical ideas are becoming more prominent
in post-war deliberations about immigration and its repercussions on our
society are becoming more serious. He demonstrates clearly in his argument how
the government claims to appeal to the notion of ”belonging” (p126)  to be able to validate racialized policies put
in place to slow down the immigration rates coming from previously colonised
countries. As immigration is currently a prominent topic of conversation
on the political agenda, Hampshire gives an essential framework to present-day
debates. One strength which cannot be overlooked in this text is Hampshire’s
referencing to a large wealth of contemporary archival material to back up this
argument, his fascinating analysis alters the way we consider citizenship. Hampshire explores the politics of
immigration and demonstrates how notions about race, demography and belonging
overlap to shape immigration policy. This extract explains how states manage
and control their population. What I found very interesting in this reading is
that the author incorporates old case studies are helpful bridge between
historical and contemporary debates.


In her introduction, Marilyn Friedman (2005) outlines the complexity of the term citizenship
as she believes it is hard to pinpoint exactly one definition to the word; it
can be a set of privileges, rights and responsibilities; however, it can also
be seen as a relationship between an individual and the state. Although citizenship
has been explored through many discipline there is hardly any exploration of the
relationship between gender and citizenship. This comes to me as a surprise because of the
globally pervasive denial of citizenship to women, historically and is still ongoing
today. With reference to essays of influential scholars such as Young. I. M (1980), Jaguar A.
M (2003), Martha Nussbaum (2002), and Sandra Bartky (2001), Freidman delves
into new dimensions when addressing citizenship e.g. the cultural and political
dimension and their relevance to women and gender. At the heart of the argument
in this text is the conceptual problems and gimmicks which helps to influence the
feminist pursuit to give woman full citizenship status and stop customs, and
conditions which extenuate women’s citizenship in many parts of the world. An
example of women’s citizenship being compromised due to traditions, is in Saudi
Arabia where women are deprived of mundane rights such as Driving to
destinations on their own. We can see clearly that this is oppressive of women’s
autonomy and citizenship.

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overarching topic in both readings is the politics of citizenship, however,
both authors take different focal points to their argument about the experience
of citizenship. Hampshire considered the legalities and policies surrounding
immigration while Freidman approaches a more fundamental topic which is gender.

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