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They have several facts
prove that supply chain emission could bring a lot of impacts to our
environment:

 

From food production
through processing to retail, food supply chains have an often unmeasured
impact on the environment. Growing our own food
within urban areas not only gives the freshest produce that we can get but it
also saves a lot of food miles, thus decreasing contamination due to
transportation, packaging and the whole logistics associated with massive food
production in rural areas. Supply chains are sometimes referred to as
“demand chains” or “value chains.” A supply chain starts with basic suppliers
and extends all the way to consumers via stages. These stages may include such
facilities as suppliers, factories, warehouses and other storage facilities,
distribution centers, and retail outlets. Food supply chain estimate that food
transportation may account for 50% of total carbon emissions for many fruits
and vegetables, but less than 10% for red meat products. Although the interrelationships
between supply chain stages may be quite complex, all supply chains have one
aspect in common, they end with a consumer. Within the developed world there
are four basic transport modes for shipping large quantities of packaged
products: water, rail, truck, and air. Trucking dominates, comprising more than
75% use in this world. An additional consideration is the potential need for
supply chain responsiveness: air freight may be the only viable option for
long-distance transport when customer orders require immediate fulfilment.

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1.3           
The impact of food
supply chain emissions to the cities

 

 

 

 

The main
factor that enables developing countries to produce more from urban agriculture
than developed countries. In developing countries urban agriculture plays a
major role in improving food security and the health of the community. There
are multiple factors that will determine whether urban agriculture will
continue to grow or diminish in the future. A major concern is the encroachment
of urban sprawl.  In rural and many urban areas, land will become increasingly
scarce in the future. Climate change, population pressure and soil degradation
will lead to a decrease of available agricultural land, while the demand for
food will continue to rise.  ZFarming
does not use additional land for food production but exploits and redefines the
vast potential of unused urban spaces, such as vacant buildings or rooftops.
Integrating food production into the urban building stock represents an
innovative way to address the issues of land scarcity and food security. By
merging food production and architecture, ZFarming contributes to
multifunctional buildings that offer a wide range of social and ecological
benefits. Major obstacles for constructing rooftop greenhouses are zoning
regulations, such as height limits and floor-to-area ratios. Rooftop
greenhouses are considered additional usable space, counting toward the
floor-to-area ratio in most cities.

 

·      
New
spaces in the city for growing food

 

ZFarming is used for
enhancing urban qualities. ZFarms on residential, commercial or mixeduse
buildings serve as recreational spaces where residents or employees can grow
their own food and enjoy a green oasis close to their homes or workplaces. The
idea of traditional green roofs is pushed one step further by combining it with
urban food growing. Farms are initiated either by real estate developers keen
on upgrading their site and capitalizing on the idea of a green, sustainable
and livable building, or by businesses that want to improve their employees’
working environment. Since ‘digging in the soil’ is a key idea, these projects
are usually soil based. The produce is mostly for personal use, and sometimes
for use by an affiliated cafeteria.

 

·      
Improve
urban living quality

 

 

 

 

The role
of ZFarming in urban food supply are different between developed and developing
countries. In developing countries, small-scale roofs Gardening plays an
important role in feeding families or small community and help them to survive
in the city. In developed countries, food
security issues are particularly relevant for low-income neighborhoods that lack
retail facilities offering fresh and healthy food. ZFarming in developed
countries is aimed at the qualitative improvement of food systems rather than
to securing basic food supply for low-income residents. In the developed world,
this is a major difference from ground-based urban agriculture. ZFarming may
effectively change existing structural arrangements by targeting local markets,
integrating farming and food business into communities; generating local
value-added goods, and establishing alternative supply chains with direct
market links to consumers rather than indirect links through wholesalers or
processors.

 

Main
objective for zfarming is serve for urban communities in urban areas. Zfarming
can be on the top of the building for food produce and ground-based to serve
for urbanite. Thus, ground-based urban farming certainly offers wider access to
fresh-grown food for urbanites. But assuming to further expand of commercial,
zfarming demands activities, and considering future resource scarcity in
growing urban areas, zfarming now is highly demands and relevant for future
urban food provision.

 

·      
New
patterns of food supply

 

Agriculture technologies
cover from low-tech to high-tech technologies. Although the farms at the roof
are opens and operates with existing green roof technology or standard raised
beds, a greenhouse on the roof and indoors farms require more sophisticated
solutions. Implementing this technique in novel settings like urban rooftops or
vacant buildings both require and stimulate technical progress. Each new ZFarm
are improve knowledge of specific technology and architecture. In addition,
high-tech commercial ZFarming often involves high investment and operating
costs like energy cost for indoor farming, thereby putting pressure on ZFarming
pioneers to gain maximum efficiency in terms of yields and energy and water
savings. This pressure for efficiency drive technical innovations, such as
space-saving vertical hydroponic growing elements or highly specialized plant
growing lights for indoor growing. The comparison between farming and buildings
are not yet fully misused, probably because most Z­Farms are integrated into
existing buildings. Existing building infrastructures are not necessarily
compatible with the implementation of energy loops or other resource-efficient
systems. Since indoor farms and rooftop greenhouses operate in a controlled
environment, ZFarming may reduce these risks. Furthermore, rooftop farms are
farther away from roads than ground-based farms or allotments. Studies suggest
that the presence of barriers between crop cultivation and roads reduces
contamination risks29.

 

·      
New
farming method

 

Urban agriculture
can help contribute to decreasing the net release of CO2 emissions, one of the
gas that contributes to global warming, from activities in cities. If cities
are producing more food within their borders, bringing places of production and
markets closer to each other, the transport of products can be reduced; this will
contribute to reducing carbon emissions and other pollutant gases. Urban
agriculture is also a way to reducing the net discharge of CO2, because plants
and trees capture CO2. The captive capacity is at its highest in the development
period of vegetation. Through agricultural activities in cities, urban
ecosystems are kept persistently in their “primary production phase”; which
means that much more CO2 per surface area is captured than in natural systems
like tropical forests. In cities, however, much of the carbon stored in
vegetation is likely to be quickly released through decomposition of organic
matter and there may be little lasting benefit.

 

·      
Reduce
carbon emission

 

The
reason why urban farming in and on the buildings is gaining popularity is
because they can have all the advantages of urban conditions. It provides
enough sunlight, irrigation and privacy that the urban farmers need, and all
the facilities of an urban lifestyle that they want. Here is a list of
beneficial urban farming that can contribute to communities’ area:

 

The
idea of growing food indoors in buildings, high rise buildings or rooftop in the cities is
becoming very popular around the world because of the rapid urbanization and
limited farming space, and so,  urban farming is also becoming very popular.

 

Urban farming in and on the building or well-known
as zero-acreage farming could be one of the
easiest ways of growing our own food if we live in a high rise building. We could easily feed our friends and family as well as make some extra money. It’s possible to
grow food indoors in containers, on your patio, balcony, rooftops, and
virtually anywhere, where they have some extra
space.

1.2           
Beneficial urban farming in and on the building

 

In
a few urban communities, urban agriculture already has an important role in
improving food security and expanding the accessibility of dietary food for the
urban poor. They continuously to play a role in food security, however, the
encroachment of urban sprawl onto farm land must be avoided they say. There is great
potential for urban agriculture to play a greater role in food security if pollution
is reduced, sustainable farming practices are introduced and bans on urban
farming is withdrawn, but these challenges may be difficult to overcome in
developing countries due to the lack of the necessary infrastructure.

 

This article also
explains about the planners tend to think that urban food growing is a messy
business, and have little understanding of peoples need to grow food in cities.
But others perception based a few article related for hundreds of millions of
urban people, it is a vital component of their livelihoods and during hard
times it is an important survival strategy, and city dwellers are increasingly
trying to persuade planners to give them space for growing crops. This is true but
not only in developing countries, but also increasingly in the developed
countries, particularly in cities where unemployment is endemic. In addition,
many people like to take the chance to invest some portion of their energy
growing things as a leisure pursuit in the cities.

 

Nowadays,
the situation of urban agriculture varies enormously amongst created and
creating nations. In cities in developed countries, urban agriculture is dominatingly
a recreational movement, instead of a dependable source of food. The cost of
urban farming is too great to provide in a variable alternative to the
supermarket. In developed cities food security is highly demanding, there is
little incentive for widespread adoption of urban farming. The productivity of
urban agriculture in developed countries will rely upon mechanical technologies
and relative food production costs. If food becomes costlier and supplies is
less secure, the advantages of urban agriculture may become more apparent.

 

 

 

As cities are grow, dietary are different. Most
of people who live in urban area are very demanding of diversity dietary,
including types of vegetables, fruits and meat, this type of foods are
increasingly consuming processed foods. These supply chain movements are
getting change and affecting all farmers from small to medium enterprises, and
consumers. A procedure has started, , which will continue for decades, that is
transforming the food systems from farm to fork.(Säumel
et al., 2012)

 

The major mission of urban agriculture based on
the author article is to feed the urban populations necessarily hinges on
estimations of how much food can be grown within a city area. The cities are
exploding by human growth in this worlds. Today, the more people are living in
urban areas than rural areas. More than 66 percent of the world’s people are
expected to live in cities by 2050, they very demanding for food for living
purposes. Especially in low- and middle-income countries like Asia, Africa, and
Latin America, to feeding urban populations has become an important and crucial
challenge. Despite their populations density, cities do have more potential for
food growing in that area.

1.1           
Farming in the cities

 

There are other benefits to building integrated
agriculture. Placing greenery on otherwise hard rooftops, for instance, can
alleviate urban heat island effect (Yu, et al., 2008; Chen, et al., 2005).
Bringing production closer to consumption can reduce food miles, i.e. the
distance food travels in getting to the consumer’s plate (Severson, 2006),
which decreases carbon emissions due to transport. Land outside cities need not
be set aside for intensive commercial farming, which of itself has many
health-related, social and environmental consequences.

 

-Urban agriculture can be defined as co-locating
crop cultivation within the city boundaries and this is one of potential
strategy to those issues. By integrating of food production in and on the
buildings offers an avenue that does not impinge on the city`s many make uses
for available land

 

-on author article stated that there are several
crucial issues on that paper article will be several highlighted. First in
depth of conventional commercial farming techniques have brought on
irreversible damage to the land (Hillel, 1991); millions of hectares of
grasslands, wetlands and forest were degraded and the cost of affection most of
ecosystems have been damaged with significant loss of biodiversity (Wilson,
1992). The clearing of land for farming activities also effects of long-term
period carbon sequestration by other permanent wood plantations (Wiliams,
2003). Second, as the world population increases from the present 6.4 billion
to 8 billion by 2025 (salim, 2004), there`ll no longer be enough arable
farmland (United States Census Bureau, 2003). This raises the spectre of food
crises. The situation is aggravated by rampant urbanization because of more
land, previously used for agriculture, set aside to cope with growing cities.
The prediction that the proportion of the world’s population that lives in the
cities will increase from 47 percent in 2000 to 60 per cent by 2030 (United
Nations, 2001)

 

-A few developing countries in this world, they
are already concern about environmental issues especially in Hong Kong, the
promotion of sustainable environment especially on green roof have attracted a
lot of attention in recent years (Hui, 2009; Urbis Limited, 2007). They already
believed that green roofs can help mitigate the unfavourable outcomes of UHI in
the city and bring the nature back to the urban area. They not only can help to
lower the urban temperatures, but enhance aesthetics and urban psychology, as
well as lessen pollutant concentrations and noise (Hui, 2006)

 

-Nowadays, many cities especially in urban area
are dealing with problems of urban heat island (UHI) and lack of greenery
space. Some cities are seeking to improve sustainability by enhancing urban
greenery and promoting urban agriculture or farming (Mougeot, 2006; Smit Ratta
and (Nasr, 1996). By preparing a few technologies by installing green roof with
urban farming, its far feasible to obtain environmental, social and economic
sustainability for residents especially in urban cities due to fact it is able
to contribute to mitigation of environmental problems, enhancement of community
function and improve of city food systems (Bay Localize, 2007; Canadian CED
Network, 2007; Kisner, 2008; Kortright, 2001; Lim and Kishnani, 2010).

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