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  The Grattan MassacreIn 1854, during one summer afternoon, a young lieutenant, John L. Grattan combatively seeking to arrest a Sioux for a petty offense and Grattan himself forced a fight. In that evening, Grattan and almost all of his men were killed, but one who reluctantly survived.On August 18, 1854, a Miniconjou Indian named High Forehead killed a cow that got away from a Mormon’s caravan which was passing through the Conquering Bear’s Brule camp. The next morning, Lieutenant Grattan with a translator named Lucien Auguste, and 29 other soldiers set out to find the offender. They stopped at the Gratiot Houses fur trading post. There the interpreter became intoxicated and threatened the loitering Indians. The Indian offender refused to give himself in, and sequences of talks between Grattan and Conquering Bear and other chiefs ended. At some point, the situation intensified and a few shots were fired, and the rest was history. Grattan and his troops were killed, except one who escaped and made back to Fort Laramie. 2. The incident quickly became known as the “Grattan Massacre,” and the Americans around the nation demanded vengeance. On the following year, in Nebraska, General William Harney led his 700 soldiers to take revenge for the Grattan Massacre against the Sioux village. The retaliation came with a brutal attack, which resulted in 100 men, women, and children dead. 3 General Harney refused to accept Chief Little Thunder’s immediate surrender and went ahead with the full-scale attack that completely demolished the village and killed more than 100 Sioux.4 when Harney found out the actual fact of Grattan Massacre, he changed his attitude toward the Sioux and arranged a successful Pearce council that temporary calmed the tensions. During Harney’s attack, one Sioux boy named Crazy Horse witnessed the brutal massacre which he could not forget and forgive the whites. 21 years later, he sought a revenge and was known as the Battle of the Little Bighorn.  1,2  Kathy Weiser. Grattan Fight-Indian Wars Begin on the Northern Plains, accessed 1/23/18 https://www.legendsofamerica.com/wy-grattanfight/3,4 History.com Staff. U.S. Army avenges the Grattan Massacre, accessed 1/23/18 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/u-s-army-avenges-the-grattan-massacre

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