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The United States
population in the first half of the nineteenth century grew by about a third
every decade. According to the census data, “the size of the U.S population in 1800
was 5,308,483 while in 1850 the size of the population grew to 23,191,867”
(      ) This tremendous growth was
attributed to territorial expansion, immigration, decrease in death rate, and
increase in life expectancy, and  the Industrial

The period between
late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries witnessed tremendous efforts in
health care reforms which established new sanitation measures in urban areas of
the United States. These measures included construction of sanitary sewer
plants to treat waste water, installation of central clean water and
distribution system, abandonment of barrel waters and draining swamps and
flooded areas where mosquitoes bred. There was also tearing down of abandoned houses,
supervising cemeteries and burial practices, enforcing quarantine of arrived
passengers and conducting frequent health inspections. Along with sanitation
measures, there were other disease preventive measures being developed such as vaccines.
 All these sanitary measures created a
healthier living environment which helped reduce the spread of diseases and
subsequently reduced the death rate and increased the life expectancy of the

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Although the inflow
of immigrants contributed for building the American society, the major factor
of the population increase in the United States was related to the surplus of
births over deaths. In the early nineteenth century American women had an
average of seven children compared to two children in the beginning of the 21st
century. This abundant rate of birth was attributed to lack of reliable
fertility control measures, and lack of education opportunities for American
women. Also, the opportunities for American women to join the work force was
very limited, so they had ample time to breed and raise children. For example,
the first colleges and coeducational institutions for women were established in
the mid-nineteenth century.

The industrial
revolution at the time increased demand for skilled workers which shifted
population from farms into the urban areas where the industries were concentrated
and workers trained. This led to increase in productivity and subsequently increase
in wages. The higher wages enabled people to get married and have children at a
younger age.

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