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The Pelton turbine
is hydraulic turbine, and is used with very large heads (Mechanical Booster,
2016). This turbine is also widely known as the “turbine bucket” in
honour of its American inventor, Lester A. Pelton (Lester Allan Pelton) (The Constructor
Civil Engineering Home, n.d.). It is impulse turbine.

The Pelton turbine
consists of a runner (1), bucket (2), casing (3), jet of water (4), nozzle (3) and
spear (5), and a penstock (6). In a Pelton turbine, water is supplied through
the nozzle passing through the middle of the bucket. The water passing
through the nozzle forms a jet, flying with great speed to strike one of the
buckets attached to the runner, after which the runner rotates. The spear
controls the volume of water which strikes the buckets and is installed inside
in nozzle. While reducing the need for electricity, the spear is moved so to
reduce or completely to block the inlet section of the nozzle. If there is a need
to increase the electricity being generated, the spear is relegated so as to
allow an increase in the water supply. The runner is the main, rotating part of
turbine onto which the buckets are fixed. The most important component of the
runner is its buckets. The bucket has a special shape, that is, it is biconcave
in the middle, which divides the water jet into two streams in order to greatly
improve the efficiency of the bucket and slow any wear they experience. As the jet is
directed along the tangent hitting the buckets, the water easily turns the
runner. After cranking the runner, the jet hits the following bucket. Work is
performed under atmospheric pressure through the conversion of the kinetic
energy of the jet of water (Mechanical Booster, 2016).

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Buckets are moulded
from cast iron, bronze, cast steel or stainless steel. This runner is installed
inside the casing, which prevents the water from splashing excessively
(Mechanical Booster, 2016). The water comes from a dam through the penstock at
high pressure.

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