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 The third fundamental reason why othering occurs is a cultural factor. Firstly, most people care people’s ethnicity like their language, their values, their religion. What is the ethnicity? “Ethnicity has been defined as a common language, culture and national origin.” (Quintana, 2007). On account of this, people’s ethnic origins often cause to be exposed to insults by most people. Additionally, this situation leads to prejudice. Exemplarily, Chinese are hardworking but insular. Religion is a considerable subject of ethnicity. People usually categorize in terms of religion in most of the time. For example, if a person is Muslim, the world’s perspective is so prejudiced against him/her like being a terrorist. This person is affected by negatively and he/she is another person in the world. Although it is not important people’s religion, most people classify another people according to their religion and thus they determine how they will behave of them. According to Bakali (2016) “Muslims have been perceived as a threatening ‘Other’ as early as the 7th century when the faith began to grow and spread into the Byzantine Empire through militaristic expansionism. In addition, Islamophobia can exist in subtle forms through media and political discourses, and can also take on more aberrant manifestations such as hate speech, hate crimes, and other discriminatory and abusive practices. ” It is obviously seen that Islamophobia is a very widespread word in the world and most of the world think that Islam is bad. Furthermore, values cause to be another person. For example, all people have different values from another people and they believe it. Therefore, they are other people in terms of society. Secondly, another important factor is nationalism. Most people care it especially race is very important them. There are disagreements and injustices between many people and the many states because of race in the world. “While the media has focused on Trump’s racist characterizations of Mexicans as “rapists,” Muslims as “terrorists,” and African Americans as “poor” and living in crime-infested neighborhoods, relatively little attention has been given to the support he received from people who would not normally consider themselves racist.” (Mangcu and Xolela, 2017, p.241). As it is seen that race brings about to be another person. In addition to this, a different culture is important for most people. For example, the cultures of the Chinese are quite interesting, so people prefer to be prejudiced against them. Because of the fact that it is easier for people and they don’t choose to understand their culture. In short, the cultural factor is the third reason why othering occurs.   

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