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The tradition of herbal medicine spreading across various cultures has led to a plethora of new advancements in the field clinical research of the use of natural products for medicinal purposes. While the results proved the commonality use of herbal medicine amongst a diverse group of people, the research conductors investigated the determinants of the consumption of herbal medicine in combination with antiretroviral therapy. The reports from the cross-sectional study in Ghana showed that 90.9% of the participants used herbal medicine essentially for appetite stimulation purposes, 87.9% of the patients reported that herbal medicine was an effective method for pain relief. Additional reports displayed that almost 64% of the participants believed herbal medicine relieve their stress associated with HIV/AIDS, while 75.8% of the study group believed herbal medicine had a positive effect on their general wellbeing (Peltzer, Preez, Ramlagan, Fomundam, 2008). Moreover, as herbal medicine continues to develop biomedical scientists must conquer a few vital obstacles such as, following a specific style of preparations of the biological constituents that make up various herbal medicinal plants in regard to the proper cultivation and extraction of medicinal plants regarding safe and acceptable agricultural protocols. Herbal medicine is a developing field that is embodied with a wide range of historical tradition. The World Health Organization defines traditional medicine as “the knowledge, skills, and practices based on theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, used in the maintenance of health and in prevention, diagnoses, improvement, or treatment of physical and mental illness.” (2010) The use of herbs in traditional medicine can be traced back more than 2,000 years ago in China ( Xutian, Zhang, and Louise 2009). It began with a book called The Devine Farmer’s Classic of Herbalism written by the famous Chinese Emperor named, Shen Nong. This archival text was filled with scientific data regarding various amount of herbs and their chemical and biological make up. Chinese research scientists set the tone for the belief of treating diseases and illnesses in a holistic approach and perspective, in reference to equilibrium of yin and yang. According to Xutian and other TCM professionals, yin, and yang plays an important role in bodies’ ability to channel energy (Qi) which they believed was an effective method to promote one’s overall health. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) played a huge factor in how the knowledge of the application of alternative forms of medicine was gained and spread globally. Once herbal medicine reached amongst different cultures, the traditional medical system also known as, TMS, developed as a way to share the knowledge of different herbs and their therapeutic benefits and methods of use among different cultures.?The clinical application of natural herbal products has played a significant role in the preservation of one’s overall health and treatment of various forms of physical and mental illnesses. One of the major advantages of using herbal products for medicinal purposes is the rate of affordability compared to the use of conventional medicine (Pizzarno). Naturopathic physicians provide dietary and stress relieving recommendation with 69-100% of their patients (Bradley R. 2012). “Changes in lifestyle and stress reduction- a major focus of naturopathic medicine- could save the US $10 billion annually in reduced coronary angioplasty procedures and coronary bypass operations alone, and insurance savings of almost $30,000 per patient.” (Guarneri E, Horrigan BJ, Pechura CM 2010). Another advantage of herbal medicine is it serves indigenous people as a pathway for one’s religious beliefs and ethical practices to be valued and upheld while offering top tier medical services. Individuals with a strong religious background is more accepting of herbal medicine because it is viewed as medical treatment solely based on faith and spirituality instead of relying on scientific analysis. The Association for the Promotion of Tradition Medicine, founded in Africa is known for its preservation of the African culture by practicing and promoting the use of natural herbs and products for medicinal purposes. The use of natural herbs has proven to have positive effects due to the biological and chemical active components that is compatible with the human body. Herbs are known to consist of multiple different forms of natural compounds, metabolites, organic acids, and a plethora of more biological and chemical components. Based on Wachtel-Galor and Iris F. F. Benzie as of today, herbs and natural products are used as a remedy for short-term and long-term illnesses and also can be used as form to maintain one’s health (2011).  ?Due to the tradition of herbal medicine spreading across various cultures there is has been an overflow of new advancements in the field clinical research of the use of natural products for medicinal purposes (Pizzarno).Human Immunodeficiency Virus Herbal medicine is commonly used as a great alternative or addition when conventional medical practices alone become ineffective in treating diseases and ailments such as HIV. Human Immunodeficiency Virus derives from the Retroviridae family of viruses. This virus mechanism mainly attacks the cells of the immune system, causes its ssRNA to undergo reverse transcription, and unifies with the host DNA chromosome. This deadly virus is contracted through blood and bodily fluids such as, breast milk, semen, and vaginal secretions. Although there has been a long history of research and drug discovery of HIV, there are no pharmaceutical drugs or antibiotics that has the capability to cure and prevent this virus due to the complex and various strands (Shaw GM, Hunter E 2012). They have been known to produce great therapeutic effects, which sometimes can be described as inexplicable (Pizzarno). In addition, the use of natural products plays a critical role in antiviral therapies and provides preventative measures for viruses (Pizzarno).HIV has a high level of diversified antigenic mechanisms that is extremely complicated to provide adequate therapeutic and preventative management. However, the highly developed an antiretroviral therapy has been a major influence on the increased longevity of those infected with HIV. This newly and highly active formed treatment is composed of nucleoside analog/non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (Ghosh RK, Ghosh SM, Chawla S, 2011.)  Meanwhile, it is found that conventional medicine alone may cause adverse effects such as, drug resistance and drug toxicity issues, patients’ compliance, and low availability of healthcare resources in third world countries (Piot P, Quinn TC, 2013). As a result, alternate forms of medicine has become more prominent in the healthcare field. ?The introduction of herbal products in the treatment of HIV has been pivotal in the morbidity related to HIV/AIDS. The innovative form of medicine has allowed for a wide range of natural products, such as marine based herbs, has been scientifically tested and proven to contain anti-viral properties that are able to conduct therapeutic mechanisms against HIV (Zhou X, Liu J, Yang B, Lin X, Yang XW, Liu Y, 2013). For example, the extracts of Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra are known to contain similar anti-viral ingredients as those in used in conventional medications for HIV patients (Lube, Klimkait, van der Kooy, 2012). Scientist recently have identified a coumarin-filled plant species named Calophuyllum as an herbal suppressant of the activity and progression of HIV (Caesar GZ, Alfonso MG, Marius MM, Elizabeth EM, 2011). A major drive of this effect is the inhibition of the duplication of HIV in in vitro imitations by preventing the nuclear factor-kappa B from activating (Kudo E, Taura M, Matsuda K, Shimamoto M, Kariya R, Goto H, 2013). Recent clinical research studies have presented new evidence that proves natural antivirals are an essential agent in ceasing the efficiency and mechanism of HIV by disturbing the envelope of the viral lipids (Hood JL, Jallouk AP, Campbell N, Ratner L, Wickline SA, 2013). These naturally occurring HIV antivirals play a key role in overpowering the progression of this fatal virus by providing innovative medical therapeutics.

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