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methods used to harm other people have
evolved due to ever developing technology (Barlett et al., 2013). In this modern era, many adolescents use personal
websites, social networking sites, Internet chat rooms, email, text or digital
image messaging to obtain information,
communicate with people, and play games (Aricak et al.,
2008). These examples can be seen
as advantages. However, specific incidents like receiving disturbing
text messages, bullying, social media harassment and stalking (Grigg, 2010) are seen as disadvantages. According to (Pabian,
De Backer and Vandebosch, 2015) cyber aggression is defined as “intentional harm delivered by
the use of electronic means to a person or group of people irrespective of
their age, who perceive(s) such acts as offensive, derogatory, harmful or

aggression is becoming a serious social issue globally, and it is predicted that its
prevalence will increase as information and communication technologies continue
to develop and become more accessible to
young people around the world (Baek and Bullock,
2013). A study conducted on 7418 Australian students aged 10-14 years
found that 23% had faced cyber aggression once or more (Cross, Shaw, Monks,
Dooley & Hearn, 2012). Another study conducted on 197 Chinese students
revealed that about 33% of them had been cyberbullied
(Li, 2008).  Several studies have found
that those who are cyber-victimized experience a wide array of negative psychological and behavioral outcomes (e.g., depression, unable to concentrate on studies, social
difficulties, drug, and alcohol use and
eating disorders) (Mishna et al., 2012).

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Previous research has shown concern for
social demographic characteristics (e.g.,
gender) (Wade & Beran, 2011), social cognitive factors (e.g., empathy) and a few personality traits (e.g., self-control, self–confidence and
self-competence) (Steffgen, König, Pfetsch,
& Melzer, 2011).  A study conducted by Hinduja and Patchin girls were more likely to be
cyberaggressors than boys. This is supported by the fact that girls do not
involve in physical fight and would rather resort to indirect ways like the
social media.

Research on cyber aggression has been mainly conducted
in Northern America and Europe rather than in Asian
countries like Malaysia, China, Taiwan. A study conducted by (Li, 2008) found
that adolescents in western countries have better access to internet compared
to adolescents in Asian countries and a trend related to adult involvement due
to their difference in culture. Chinese adolescents have been taught about
Confucianism and Taoism, a belief where children are taught to obey adults
always (Wright et al., 2015).  Due to the various studies conducted in
different countries, empirical research with a cyberbullying focus already
exists, but there is not much research
addressing cyber aggression among adolescents using cross-cultural samples (Wright et al., 2015).  

previous research did not look much into the culture behavior
followed by the respective countries (e.g.,
Individualism vs. Collectivism). Collectivistic
countries (e.g., China and Japan) behave consistently with an interdependent
sense (a person sees themselves as part of a broader
community) of self-construal. On the other hand, individualistic countries
like the United States endorses independent self-construal (a person sees
themselves as part of themselves). Self-construal is defined as the way a person thinks about and defines their self.

study aims to generalize the findings of
previous work to real work by measuring the impact of adolescents from
different countries in a relatively large sample size of adolescents. It is hypothesized that Australian adolescents
would report higher levels of cyber aggression involvement than Chinese

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