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The MetamorphosisCOMPLETE ON A SEPARATE PIECE OF PAPERPlease be detailed and provide examples for ALL the questionsPathos:  How does Kafka create pathos to achieve sympathy for Gregor? At the start of the novel he talks about how Gregor is a tool for his boss with no brains or backbone. Gregor has gotten so used to the fact that he has to work to provide for his family that he worries about getting to work even after his transformation. He can’t even call in sick because then the firm comes with a health insurance doctor and “blames his parents for their lazy son”. The fact that his parents are making their own son work to support their family also creates pathos because the parents are the ones that are supposed to be supporting the family. For his father “breakfast was the most important meal of the day, which he would prolong for hours while reading various newspapers” instead of working. Imagery:  What kinds of imagery does Kafka use in the first part of the novella?  What effect does this achieve in the telling of the story?Kafka uses pathetic fallacy when he describes the raindrops hitting the metal window ledge (Pg 1). Kafka describes Gregor’s numerous little legs to be in every different kind of perpetual motion in which he could not control (Pg 6). He also describes that “his many legs, pitifully thin compared with the size of the rest of him, were waving helplessly before his eyes” (Pg 1). The imagery used in the first part of the novel helps to create symbolism and creates a picture in the reader’s mind about the setting of the novel. Mood:  How does Kafka establish mood within the first few paragraphs? He establishes mood partly through pathos and partly through imagery. Confusion is conveyed at the start of the novel as it starts right in the middle of the action. The fact that he is so calm despite the fact that he has turned into a vermin also emphasizes this mood (Pg 1).  Surrealism:  What aspects of the story seem surreal? The fact that he is so calm after turning into an insect make the story seem surreal. Furthermore, the reactions of the others with the exception of the manager (Pg 14-15) and how is father drove Gregor back into his room also make the story seem surreal (Pg 18-19). There was also a hospital across the street and they didn’t even think about taking Gregor there to get help. Colloquialism:  Gregor’s condemnation of his life with the colloquialism, “To the devil with it all.” indicates what possible reason for his transformation?  Why would this be? He was figuratively already a vermin and now he has literally transformed into a vermin. It seems to be an ironic punishment. Questions:  Please use quotations to support your answers.What is odd about Gregor’s reaction to his metamorphosis? He seems to be calm and the first thing that comes to his mind is about getting to work on time (Pg 4-5). What quotations link the symbolic features of being an insect with Gregor Samsa’s work life? “He was a tool of the boss, without brains or backbone” (Pg 5). “eating miserable food at all hours, constantly seeing new faces, no relationships that last or get more intimate” (Pg 4). How does Gregor perceive his life? He is dissatisfied with his job and his life lacks fulfillment. “What a grueling job I’ve picked! Day in, day out – on the road. The upset of doing business is much worse than the actual business in the home office, and, besides, I’ve got the torture of traveling, worrying about changing trains, eating miserable food at all hours, constantly seeing new faces, no relationships that last or get more intimate. To the devil with it all!”. He says “if I didn’t hold back for my parents’ sake, I would have quit long ago” (Pg 3-4). He fantasizes about going to retirement. “Once I’ve gotten the money together to pay off my parents’ debt to him-that will probably take another five or six years-I’m going to do it without fail. Then I’m going to make the big break” (Pg 4). How is Gregor characterized by members of his family and the office manager?  How do they react to the metamorphosis? There is a lack of communication, his father says he’s stubborn, and his manager accuses him of stealing. He is always thinking about work and is so caught up with work that he doesn’t really have a life outside of it. “That boy has nothing on his mind but the business” (Pg 10). He never goes out at nights, he just sits there “at the table, quietly reading the paper or studying timetables” (Pg 10). The manager reacts with a loud “Oh!” and backed up slowly. His mother starts crying and his father drives Gregor back into his room. What Greco-Roman myths come to mind that involve a metamorphosis?  Why does it happen?  What are the consequences? Zeus transforms into different animals to “seduce girls”. Metamorphosis is typically used to hide things. The MetamorphosisChapter 2Please be detailed and provide examples for ALL the questionsSuspense:  How does Kafka achieve suspense at the beginning of Chapter 2? The room is dark and the light from the lamp leaves streaks across the ceiling which represent the bars of a prison. Outside Gregor’s room, everyone is tip toeing around and no one is talking to each other. There is also the sudden slamming of doors and the keys are inserted on the outside. Verisimilitude: Although many aspects of the story seem symbolic and/or surreal, what about the story denotes verisimilitude? The fact that Gregor starts to dislike human food, for example when he took a sip of the milk, he couldn’t take another sip not because he had difficulty eating on the account of his sore left side, but because he didn’t like it at all (Pg 20). The story also denotes verisimilitude when Gregor comes to the conclusion that he would have to lie low to help his family bear “the inconvenience which he simply had to cause them in his present situation” (Pg 22). Symbolism: Chapter 2 incorporates many different symbols  (some are more obvious while others are contextual.  Identify some of the symbols and what they could potentially signify.  (Use the “Explanatory Notes” at the back of the book to help you) Grete’s solicitude when she brings Gregor a wide assortment of things to find his likes and dislikes has the effect of confirming Gregor’s animal identity. The newspaper is a symbol of power; the person in power at any moment possesses or manipulates it. Thus before the metamorphosis Gregor used to like to sit at the table and read the newspaper; immediately after the metamorphosis we learn that the father drags out breakfast by reading various newspapers. That father has driven Gregor back into his room with a huge newspaper. The apples that are being thrown at Gregor are related to the tree in the Garden of Eden. The apple scene appears as an inversion of the Fall: Gregor does not himself reach out for the fruit; it is thrown at him, rather, as punishment for his regression to a pre human stage. Point of view: What point of view is the novella predominantly written in?  Taking care to consider the unique traits of the other points of view, explain whether they may or may not have also been effective. The novel is written in limited omniscient. With limited omniscient, the narrator reports the outward actions and inward processes of the protagonist, but reports only the outward actions of other characters. First person would not work for this story because Gregor is mostly in his room and would make the story boring if we could only see what Gregor sees. Objective narration would not be as effective because we wouldn’t know what Gregor was thinking and we would not know the reasons behind his actions. Omniscient narration would make the story hard to follow as the narrator reports the outward actions and inward processes of all characters equally. Questions:  Please use quotations to support your answers.Describe the metamorphosis that is beginning to take place in the other family members.  Consider how each deals with their new situation. Gregor’s family would have consultations at every mealtime about how they should cope with their new situation. Two members of the family would stay home because no one wanted to stay home alone with Gregor. The maid “begged his mother on bended knees to dismiss her immediately; and when she said goodbye a quarter of an hour later, she thanked them in tears for the dismissal, as if for the greatest favor that had ever been done to her in this house.” Since the maid left, his sister and his mother have done all the cooking. His family is also starting to lose their appetite, “they hardly ate anything” and “they did not seem to drink anything either.” His sister has turned into Gregor’s caretaker and everytime she came out of Gregor’s room, she would have to report to her parents about “how the room looked, what Gregor had eaten, how he had behaved this time, and whether he had perhaps shown a little improvement.” Gregor was the provider of the family; he earned enough money to meet the expenses of the entire family. However, his family will now have to find a way to sustain themselves after Gregor’s transformation. They are in a state of crisis. His father is an old man and can not be expected to undertake much. His mother suffers from asthma and his sister is now supposed to work, but would deprive her of her life that she had led before, “which had consisted of wearing pretty clothes, sleeping late, helping in the house, enjoying a few modest amusements, and above all playing the violin.” If there was one human trait that Gregor could retain, which trait would you argue to be the most important to his current state.The ability to speak or communicate so that he could thank his sister for everything she has done for him. “If Gregor had only been able to speak to his sister and thank her for everything she had to do for him, he could have accepted her services more easily.” Furthermore, “Gregor could not find out what excuses had been made to get rid of the doctor and the locksmith” because of his inability to speak or communicate. Do you think that the picture of the lady in furs takes on a new meaning for Gregor from the beginning of the story?  Why or why not?  Explain. No because in the first chapter the picture of the lady in furs reveals Gregor’s hidden sexual desires. In the second chapter when his family is clearing out his room, Gregor sits on the picture as if he were possessing the women in it. Gregor is at the same united with the picture of the fur lady and separated from his dream object by the glass. The picture still represents his sexual desires, but now he is trying to hold on to the one thing represents his manhood. The fulfillment and simultaneous frustration of love are rendered here by a convincing paradox. What Biblical symbolism can be drawn from the apples that Gregor’s father throws at Gregor? The apples are related to the Tree in the Garden of Eden. The apple scene appears as an inversion of the Fall: Gregor does not himself reach out for the fruit; it is thrown at him, rather, as punishment for his regression to a pre human stage.The MetamorphosisChapter 3Please be detailed and provide examples for ALL the questionsTone: How do you perceive the tone in chapter 3?  How does the narrator adjust tone throughout the chapter? How do you know that there are changes in tone? The tone in chapter 3 is perceived to be worn out or exhausted. He adjusts the tone throughout the chapter by changing the sentence structure and through the use of imagery. Kafka uses long sentences to establish this tone. At the start of the chapter, Kafka begins with a paragraph that consists of many commas, semicolons, and hyphens, but only one period at the end of the paragraph. This makes the reader feel exhausted and worn out because the reader does not catch a break until they reach the end of the paragraph. When the narrator says “endure him, endure him and nothing more” this implies that putting up with Gregor wears out his family and is also putting them through pain and suffering. The narrator comparing Gregor to an “old veteran” taking long minutes to get across his room also serves to further establish the tone. Syntax: Does the syntax change through Chapter 3.  If so, when does it change?  What are the circumstances?  What are the effects? Yes, at the beginning of the chapter Kafka uses long and involved sentences to wear out the reader. This helps to make the reader feel what Gregor is feeling so that the reader can sympathize with Gregor. The syntax changes when Gregor gets into conflict with his family and the roomers. Kafka uses shorter sentences during more intense parts as it serves to increase the speed and convey a tone of urgency. In media res:  Does this book begin in media res?  Explain why Kafka had chosen to begin the work in this way. I think Kafka chooses to begin in media res because he wants to show how Gregor was already a vermin figuratively and now he has literally transformed into a monstrous vermin. This way he can also show Gregor’s deterioration of his humanity.    Characterization: Assign a humour (Sanguine, Phlegmatic, Choleric, Melancholic) to each of the family members and explain what evidence supports your supposition. I think Grete is sanguine because she shows compassion towards Gregor and even takes care of him. When Gregor found the milk to be disgusting, to find out his likes and dislikes, Grete brought back a variety of things for Gregor to try “in the goodness of her heart”. She still saw Gregor as her brother even after his transformation. She was also concerned with Gregor’s feelings. For example when Grete came back with the variety of things for Gregor to try, she knew that Gregor would not eat in front of her so she left the room just so that Gregor could make himself as comfortable as possible. Gregor is Phlegmatic because when he wakes up and finds himself to be turned into a monstrous vermin he doesn’t freak out and is instead concerned with getting to work on time. He is also concerned about how his family is going to make ends meet as he cannot work. When the manager comes and criticizes Gregor and accuses him of stealing and also threatening to fire him, Gregor begs the manager to have mercy on his family even in his condition. Gregor doesn’t act like this transformation has had a major impact on him. He still tries to go about his regular day activities. Gregor’s father is choleric. After Gregor’s transformation, his father shows no sympathy for him. When Gregor finally opens the door, “his father clenched his fist, as if to drive Gregor back into his room”. At the end of chapter 1, Gregor’s father shoves Gregor back into his room injuring Gregor and making him bleed profusely. At the end of chapter 2, Gregor’s father punishes him by throwing apples at him and one apple forced its way into Gregor’s back. Gregor’s mom is melancholic. She is torn between her love for gregor Hubris: Could you explain Gregor’s downfall as the result of hubris?Questions:  Please use quotations to support your answers.How does the family resolve to deal with Gregor?  Do they live up to their self-assigned duty by the end of the book? How does the interaction with the cleaning woman affect Gregor?What role do the lodgers play in the book?  How does their presence affect the family?  How does their presence force the conclusion?How does Grete’s violin playing affect Gregor?  How does this change from the beginning?  What plan does he devise during the playing?  What is your impression of this?

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