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The essay will discuss how the international and supranational organisations contributed to the planning and implementation of sustainable tourism development. International organisation refers to a system where the countries collaborate together towards common goals. Each country has a target which is similar to one another country. The purpose of the international organisation is to gather these countries together and aid them in accomplishing their goals (Cafaro, 2015). The supranational organisation, on the other hand, is established to react to the common needs of the different states (Khurmatullina & Malyi, 2016). Decisions are made through voting from the member states, whereby those with majority votes will be executed. Therefore, the member states who belong to the minority will still have to follow once the decisions are made (Cafaro, 2015).Sustainable tourism development can be reached through the holistic approach, which means taking the three sustainability principles (economic, socio-cultural and environment) into consideration during tourism planning. It is important for a country to balance these principles in order to create a tourism which benefits them economically, without causing destruction to the environment and community’s lifestyle (Angelevska-Najdeska & Rakicevik, 2012).In addition, long-term thinking is required to attain sustainable tourism development. When planning for any tourism development, it is important to include the needs of the future generations. This is to ensure that while meeting the needs of the current generation, it will not jeopardise the capability of the succeeding generations (Higgins-Desbiolles, 2017). This can be done by taking the producer, non-producer and single interest groups into account when planning. These groups work towards protecting their interests and they have the power to affect the decision-making process (Mowforth & Ian, 2003). Although they do not have to be related to the tourism industry, they still play a part in sustainable development (Reisinger & Turner, 2007). Various international and supranational organisations had played their part in ensuring sustainable tourism development. Through their efforts, it affects the tourism development in many destinations. Some examples are World Bank and the European Union.Firstly, World Bank is an international institution which provides financial support for developing countries. Through loans and grant funds, it enables the developing countries to invest in areas that contribute to the country’s growth. When a country plans to increase tourism, these funds will be used in areas such as infrastructure, environmental and natural resource management. Although its main objectives are offering financial support, World Bank also organised events to discuss the development plans in the country (The World Bank, n.d.).World Bank has affected tourism in Papua New Guinea. As part of the Country Assistance Strategy (CAS), World Bank enters into a long-term partnership with Papua New Guinea. The main objective is to assist Papua New Guinea in improving the management of its sound economy, natural resources and the livelihoods of the poor (World Bank, 2012). World Bank provides financial support and helps Papua New Guinea to access grant funds from other international and regional organisations. In addition, World Bank engage Papua New Guinea in projects such as Road Maintenance and Rehabilitation Project (International Monetary Fund, 2009). Through this project, it helps to improve the conditions of roads and infrastructures in the country. Currently, more than 700 kilometres of roads and 46 bridges have been repaired (The World Bank, 2017). These improvements will provide a safer travelling environment for both tourists and residents.The restoration of roads and bridges improves the living condition of the locals. The locals are able to receive a higher education as they can travel out to schools easily. Farmers are able to sell their surplus crops at the market, which contributes to a higher household income. In addition, there will be easier access to the hospitals, allowing them to receive treatments without delays (International Labour Organization, 2003). On the other hand, this made the rural areas expose to the public. Due to the rising demand for cultural tourism, many tourists want to visit rural places for experiences. Accessibility will prompt them further to visit the rural places. This will threaten the locals’ lifestyle and culture if there is no proper regulation to control any unauthorised action by tourist. Secondly, European Union aims to provide easier accessibility within the European countries, while ensuring their security are not being threatened. Moreover, it focused on protecting the environment and the cultural elements which can be found in each nation (European Union, 2018). Established since 1945, the European Union has contributed towards tourism through various actions. Some examples will be listed in the following paragraphs. An example is the Schengen Agreement. Through this agreement, it allows freedom in crossing the internal borders within the Schengen Area. This involves a total of 26 countries, whereby 22 are from the European Union and the remaining from Switzerland, Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein (, n.d.). Barriers between the states are being removed, which enables people, products and services to move around easily. In addition, a common visa policy has been executed for the Schengen countries. It will be more convenient for travellers from external nations to enter the Schengen countries since they only need to apply for one Schengen Visa instead of getting visas from each country individually. However, both United Kingdom and Ireland are still against this idea, which makes them not part of the Schengen Area (Havlí?ek, Je?ábek, & Dokoupil, 2018).With the Schengen Agreement, participating countries are required to work together with one another to ensure security within the Schengen Area. However, when there are different opinions, it can create tension between the nations. This can be seen from the dispute between France and Italy. In 2011, with a series of anti-government demonstrations in the Middle East (Manfreda, 2017), it caused the citizens escape to other nations for a better life. Those who arrived in Italy are given a six-month residence permit by the government. In spite of that, they are prevented from entering into France. Italy was displeased by this actions and blamed France for violating the Schengen agreement. The argument ends with European Commission declaring that France’s actions were acceptable. Nevertheless, this has caused tension between the two nations (Wang, 2016).The European Union has also played a part in preserving the cultural heritage found in the European countries. Culture is important as it creates a sense of identity for the locals. In addition, culture has become popular among the tourists, and therefore protecting the heritage will help boost tourism in that area. The European Union introduced the European Capital of Culture (ECoC), a programme which motivates the cities to improve their image and raise their visibility (Šebová, Džupka, Hudec, & Urban?íková, 2014). Bilbao, a city located in northern Spain, has participated in this programme. Before development, Bilbao was in a bad condition, with the high unemployment rate, worn out infrastructures and demoralised citizens. In 1992, the government began on the development plans to improve on the conditions in Bilbao. Huge investments have been brought in for the urban regeneration projects. One major project is the development of Guggenheim Museum. With its unique design, it was known as one of the most important buildings in the twentieth century (Guggenheim, n.d.). In 1997, when the museum first opened, there is a huge increase of 43 percent in the number of foreign travellers per month (Matotay, 2010).  Through the Guggenheim Museum project, it helps Bilbao to transform its image successfully. Other than attracting tourism, this also encourages investments into the city. This creates more jobs in Bilbao, which helps to lower the unemployment rate. From a high unemployment rate of 25 percent in 1993 (Matotay, 2010), Bilbao has reduced it to 18.7 percent in the year 2016 (Eustat, 2017). The transformation has also benefited the community as it strengthens their identity and improves their living conditions (Plaza & Haarich, 2013). In conclusion, the international organisation contributes to the planning and implementation of sustainable tourism development by aiding the countries in their development plans. World Bank supports Papua New Guinea’s growth by providing funds and engaging them in projects. Whereas for the supranational organisation, the European Union has received support from most of its member states in creating a single transport area. This allowed a smooth transportation system in the Schengen Area. Through the ECoC, it stimulates the cities to improve the environment and protects its culture for sustainable development. 

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