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Hans Artur Fuhrmann


Colonialism is fieldwork
which interests the conflicted areas between colonized and colonialized zones
and countries of the world, with touching economic, humanistic and realistic
perspectives of researching. Colonialism was a process which happened in
between 1492 and 1914. It means that imposing political, economic, cultural and
structural systems to another territory which was not owner before colonize it,
by a state. Colony states have not foreign policy or military, beside sometimes
it has internal affairs to action.

There are different motivations for colonialism which
were based on 15th and 16th century. The process of Renaissance, Reform
(Protestant Movement) and Enlightenment were the fuelled motivations of
colonialism in humanity history. Because within Renaissance, Reform and
Enlightenment, the Eastern civilization invents have been move to Western
civilization such as compass. Compass is the keyword for geographical
discoveries and it derives from the China. Also within geographical discoveries
Protestant Movement has been reached to North and South American continents. Also
other criminals and soldiers have been moved to these two continents which are
North and South America, because of being expel and to colonize these virgin

The most successful countries in the colonization
process are done by Britain, France, Portugal and Spain. The Spanish
colonization happened in the South America with the Portuguese colonization
when the Britain and France were doing colonization in the North America. This
colonization process of Spanish in Latin America has been faced resistances.
But the most important one they have been faced can be count as the resistance
with leadership of Simon Bolivar. Because the resistance against imperialism
and colonialism of Spanish Empire has been smashed out with this action and
Simon Bolivar’s actions and heritage affected even today’s politics

Bolivarianism became an ideology for Latin American
countries in our world. Because of that Bolivarianism will be explained in this
research and as big figure of Bolivarianism, Hugo Chavez will be explained in
this fieldwork as one of the most affective resistance against imperialism of
Western big powers in the Latin American territories.

2.      SPANISH

Spanish state regulated
discovery and immigration with the House of Trade in Seville, which agreement made for keep records who will be
settler in New World. The Spanish state only led to Christians go and settle in New World,
also they hatred about other religions. Even they expelled Jews in 1492.1 Civilization
is not a situation for the Latin America which we cannot say that: European
colonization civilized this region. Before the invasion of Latin America the
region includes big empires which are the Olmec, Maya, Muisca and Inca and they
had big civilizations before the process of colonization of Europeans. The
Spanish concentration of Latin America was about the wealthy resources of
silver and gold and because of the societies of the Aztec, the Maya, the Inca
and the Musica, which they can handle and conquer them because of the
exploiting their labour and material resources.  

Spanish America

The Spanish colonizers were not only the first of the
Europeans to reach the Americas, but Spaniards quickly occupied and located the
areas of greatest huge population and resources. Their immigration was aiming
that being permanent in the region and that is why they went these virgin lands
with full – force.

The Caribbean Phase

The Caribbean islands during the first years of
Spaniard occupation were the arena of practicing many developments about
colonialization process.

Columbus has an idea about island of Hispaniola which
covers Dominican Republic and Haiti at base. Also he wanted to discover new
partners for trade and make some enterprises at these lands with using labour
of employees who went New World with him. The return to Hispaniola in 1493 was
more close to purposes of Columbus which includes large number and variety of
people and equipment for being permanent in that territory. In the year of 1499,
the royal government of Spain states that “There will be newcomers for

In 1496, Santo Domingo founded on the south eastern
coast of Hispaniola which became a real city with second spreading wave of
Spaniards. With the second wave of spreading of Spaniards, they constructed gold-mining
sites, which places have become wealthy resources for Spanish economy. Until
mid-16th century there were many losses because of bad working
conditions for Spanish and Indian labourers. After this process, Spaniards
restarted the cycle which was spreading over the new islands, but more quick
than before because of their experiences which came from first wave of
spreading in the New World.

The City

The center of Santo Domingo became an example for
cities which constructed by Spaniard settlers. Churches, governmental offices and
shops constructed together in the city center square, for all the people
required for them. As an urbanized city in 16th century Santo
Domingo was the trailblazer of the making a difference between other colonized
cities. As a Spaniard – American city Santo Domingo remained like this for
centuries. Also Indians of New World used this city like before the settlers
have constructed and this city became an enormous process of cultural change.

Indians and Spaniards

In the Caribbean, colonization process become happen
with combining indigenous and Spanish elements. The necessity of a constitution
because of relations between indigenous people and Spaniards was clear. Reconquista
times were the base of Spanish constitution process. But while he was Governor
of colonies, Columbus had opposed constitution, even how much Spanish royalty
tried to restrict it as much as they could. The encomienda already existed for
the indigenous side, but it was depended situation of the local indigenous. The
holder of the grant (encomendero) decides what will the encomiendas and this
was dependent to how many indigenous units there.

The usage of the indigenous labour decides by the
encomendero and position holders use it for different ways which are to work
them as miners, use them as servants or produce agricultural products as much
as use them to construct houses in the Spanish city where he lived. As the main
contact of Spanish-Indian relation, the encomienda was the only ruler beside
Spanish crown.

The encomendero would hire some Spaniards or African
slaves until the resources of his responsible area’s resources become empty. But
without any intervention he needed permanent employees from indigenous people who
could learn necessary skills. Also this was not a foreign policy for the world.
Beside of call them as “naborias”. The process of being naborias at the
colonized territory was the main cultural change event European oriented,
African oriented and indigenous people for relates them. The non-Christians
taken in battle could properly be enslaved in the Reconquista tradition for
Spaniard thinking.

Nevertheless, the population in the Caribbean and on
the mainland was not enslaved. But slave-raiding become a major factor around the
Caribbean; because of the Spaniards were attempting replace the losses. As in
this case, the slaves were always, far away from their homeland.

Conquest in the Central Mainland Areas and Mexico

The Spaniards learned that the indigenous people would
often cooperate with the settlers in order to gain advantage against a local
enemy. So the Spanish occupation was using that to create a wider authority. Spanish
expansion organized under royal auspices, but expeditions of Spaniards were financed
and organized locally. The authorities of these expeditions were official and
local leaders, and big investors.

There was no sense of rank and no permanent
organization as military force. Also steel and horse power were creating huge
advantageous situation against indigenous force. On open ground, two or three
hundred Spaniards were enough to defeat indigenous armies of many with few
casualties from themselves. As comers from many different regions of Spain
(plus some foreign countries) the conquering forces showed some diversity. They
were founders and settlers in the new cities, and became welcomes of their

The Spaniards began a serious push toward the mainland
to one Cuba and central Mexico. The Peruvian phase started first, in Tierra
Firme (the area of Panama and present north-western Colombia) in the years
between 1509 and 1513. But this expedition was in the shadow of conquest of
central Mexico in between 1519 and 1921.

 The leader of
the Mexico, Hernando Cortes, was educated and organized leader as a wealthy and
powerful person in Cuba. The organized expedition by him reached some ports
with passing by the Maya of the Yucatán Peninsula. After that, the Spaniards
landed in force on the central coast.

The Spaniards decided to ally with Tlaxcalans, against
their traditional enemy, the Aztec, as their first action move east of Mexico. The
secondary reaction happened in capital city. the Spaniards lost much of their
usual advantage because of shot through the canals which they decided to come.
Although they remained powerful in the open country, so they retreat from
battle area and take close them. Four months later the Spaniards captured capital
city of the Aztec and started to turn it as Mexico City.

The capture of other parts of Mexico was more easy
than capture Aztec capital. Spaniards moved to North because these lands were
more available and easy to get it. For a person who acts as Governor, Cortes
but his rivals tried to replace him with another man with inform against him to
the Spanish Crown.

Conquest of Peru

Because of the navigate route was very difficult, Spanish
invasion of Peru and Panama become happen after other conquests. In early 1520s,
a wealthy encomendero; Francisco Pizarro led expedition through Peru with help
of crown, as taking new governorship of these lands. In 1532, Spaniards
captured Inca Emperor and expelled him in 1533, because of not get support from
his own people and create a resistance against Spanish colonizers.

The Spaniards came there at the end of the Inca Civil
War which led to their expedition become easier. They founded a major Spanish
city in Cuzco. Also in Peru, Spanish population was coastal side when indigenous
population was in the hills of Peru.

Expeditions have been moved to Colombia, to Chile and
Argentina, because of Peru seem as conquered securely. But in 1536, an uprising
took place in the far of central Peru, but do not waste much time to come to
central Peru. After that, Inca ruler and a group of  his followers expelled.

Because of the geography of Peru it was hard to travel
in country and to reach Peru from Spain. There were some issues between encomiendas
and Pizarro brothers and they were ready to resistance against official responsible,
Pizarro brothers. Beside wealthy resources of Peru, there were four large-scale
civil wars between the Spaniards in the time between the late 1530s and early

Pizarro became governor of the country after
successful expeditions. Until the year of 1541, he remained as governor and he
died because of assassination. After his death, Spanish royalty appointed a
governor who does not know anything about structure and geography. This
situation brought a civil conflict, which caused to many causalities.

3.      THE

After a long period of colonial rule, independence
movements of Latin America could call as “come suddenly. The dramatic change
has been started with bad external events and long-time conflicts between
colonial rule and igneous people.


The Spanish people who born in America call as Creoles.
These people were not comfortable because of reforms imposed by the Spanish officials
of crown in the 18th century. During the late colonial era some
Creoles in Venezuela benefited from periphery areas. Also Creoles were angry
against the crown’s chooses for administrative positions. Also the support of
the caste system was declining in territories of Spanish colonization. Creoles
were privileged class when we compare them with indegeous people but after
hundreds years of service which shows the loyalty to crown, the officials of
Spanish state treat them like new colonized population.

Because of the Enlightenment process, Creole ideas
were supporting in cities. Creoles showed some actions against Spanish state
which have been impressed by European Enlightenment thinkers as John Locke,
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Montesquieu, and Thomas Hobbes.

Still, these ideas were not, strictly speaking, causes
of independence. Creoles selectively adapted rather than simply embraced the
thought that had informed revolutions in North America and France. Leaders in
Latin America tended to shy away from the more socially radical European
doctrines. Moreover, the influence of those ideologies was sharply restricted;
with few exceptions only small circles of educated, urban elites had access to
Enlightenment thought. At most, foreign ideas helped foster a more questioning
attitude toward traditional institutions and authority.

Creole’s movement become full-fledged movements after European
diplomatic and military events. When the Spanish colonies and crown’s realtions
has been changed because of the Allience between France and Spain in 1795. In
that time, being together with France means that being against the England
which country is the another big imperial and colonial power. Because of
happens between Spain and other European countries, Spanish Americans found
themselves as legal traders, who able to trade with any neutral countries such
as the United States legally  and with
other colonies.

Events in Europe in the early 19th century
created a political division between Spanish state and Spanish Latin American
colonies. As an example, John who send by Portuguese ruler, crated an administrative
centre of his empire in Brazil.  

In the year of 1810, a parliament has been found in
Cádiz to represent both Spanish America and Spain. New liberal constitution
announced and stated that, Spain’s American colonies will be count as not
colony, as full member of Spanish state. Even after this announcement Creoles
parliament members were denied equal representation. Because parliament refused
free trade between America and colonized Spanish territories. But after one
time experiences about freedom, Spanish Americans did not easily give up this
problems solution.  

In 1814, the restoration of Ferdinand to the Spanish
state, Spanish imperial power re-established. Also Ferdinand organized military
force to bring Spanish colonies back to position of colony. In 1820 troops of
Cádiz forced Ferdinand to make a liberal agreement about case of colonized

The Wars Of Independence (1808–1826)

Latin American forces last victory over Spain created a political crisis in Spain in the year of

1 Rumeu de Armas, Antonio. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones
Científicas, ed. New light on the Santa Fe capitulations of 1492
between the Catholic Monarchs and Christopher Columbus: institutional and
diplomatic study. p. 138-141

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