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The
millennial generation is a highly skilled and greatest asset for an
organization. This generation puts a balance between personal and professional
life and has an eagerness to catch training and advancement also regular
feedback. However, Ng et al (2010) underline the measurement for millennials’
expectation in the workplace included career advancement expectation, pay and salary
expectation and work attribute expectation. Ng et al (2010) also mention that the
“supersized” expectation among millennials, seems unrealistic and not detached
between reward and performance. An organization should take these
characteristics of millennials as an information to ensure the needs of this
generation is met. If the needs of millennials are ignored by an organization,
they tend to become disengaged and will find another opportunity. The lower
level of engagement might be due to their high expectations or unrealistic
expectation but ignoring the expectation of millennials will lead them to have
a negative impact on their engagement level in an organization (Thornton,
2015).

However,
there were less number of literatures discussed about career-related
expectation and the level of employee engagement. In Thornton’s (2015) finding,
it is found that there is no significant relationship between career-related
expectation to the level of employee engagement. In contrast to Thornton’s
(2015) finding, Maxwell, Ogden and Broadbridge (2010) discuss that millennials
could be more engaged if the company acknowledged their expectations. Lee et al
(2016) also explain for those employees who own career expectation may manage
their actions to be more proactive in attempt to discover opportunities and
establish the proper goals. Maxwell, Ogden and Broadbridge (2010) are
finished the study about millennials in Scotland where Thornton’s (2015) study is
targeted millennials in Ireland as their population sample. Regarding to this
gap, this study believes that career-related expectation included the three
indicators namely career advancement, salary and work attributes expectation
have a positive relationship in the level of employee engagement among
millennials.

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Hypothesis 1: Career-related expectation
together with its indicators has a positive relationship with the level of
employee engagement among millennial.

Moreover,
Ng et al (2010) explain that looking for advancement and promotion are also
being the focus of millennials in an organization. Kim et al (2012) describe that there might be some
barriers to promote employee engagement from the viewpoint of the career due to
workplace condition. Greenhaus, Peng, and Allen (2012) also discuss that some
employees are involuntary to less thinking about career advancement in attempt
to accomplish the balance between work and family or occupational health. With
this contradiction between these literatures, this study speculates that career
advancement expectation is positively related to the level of employee
engagement among millennial.

 Hypothesis
2: Career advancement expectation has a positive relationship with the level of
employee engagement among millennial.

On the
other hand, based on Penna’s “Hierarchy of engagement” (2007) in Thornton
(2015), the basic of employee needs are salary and benefit. This is in line
with Ng et al (2010) that explain salary is one of the millennial expectation
and will be more motivated to perform well if an organization conform this
expectation (Maxwell, Ogden and Broadbridge, 2010). Lee (2012) also mentions
that employees who are motivated with rewards and income may have an ambience
to possess their job and will be more proactive. Thus, this study theorizes
that salary expectation has a positive relationship with the level of employee
engagement among millennials.

Hypothesis 3: Salary expectation has a
positive relationship with the level of employee engagement among millennials.

Therefore,
Lancaster and Stillman (2002) suggest that to make
millennials engaged, this generation is not only interested with the job, they
also pay more attention for the social aspect of work. This is line with Ng et
al (2010) that explain work-related attributes are essentially considered by
millennial as their job choice. Thus, this study hypothesizes that work
attributes expectation has a positive relationship with employee engagement
among millennials.

Hypothesis 4: Work attributes has a
positive relationship with the level of employee engagement among millennials.

However,
According to Tulgan (2009), “Gen Y will
be more difficult to recruit, retain, motivate and manage than any previous
generation, however, if managed correctly they have the potential to be the
highest performing generation in history”. Deloitte study (2011) concludes
that older member of millennials will be more focused on the job security. Ng
et al (2011) also mention that fresh graduates may have lower expectations
about the salary since most of them are more prioritizing experience than the
other benefit that an organization could offer. On the other hand, Thornton
(2015) discusses the differentiation between younger and older member of
millennials regarding their employee engagement. Thornton (2015) finds out that
older member of millennials has a higher employee engagement than the younger
member.

Hypothesis 5a: Younger and older member of
millennials is significantly different regarding their career-related
expectations?

Hypothesis 5b: Younger and older member of
millennials is significantly different regarding their employee engagement
level?

Ng et
al (2010) say that relationship with manager is the highest rated attributes
among millennial. This is also in line with the Thornton’s finding that says
opportunity for advancement, good people to work with and good people to report
to are the highest rated attributes among millennials.  Based on these findings and Ng et at’ study
(2010) is conducted in Canada, Thornton’s study (2015) is conducted in Ireland,
this study wants to find out the highest rated work attributes among millennial
in Indonesia.

2.6 Tech Startup

A
startup is an organization which is not a smaller version of big organization,
but a temporary organization intended to have a repeatable and scalable
business model (Blank and Dorf, 2012). According to Calopa et al (2014), a
startup is a newly created organization which is still in progress for developing
the products or services, improvement and strongly invested in market research.
Calopa et al (2014) also mentions a startup usually related in with high-tech
product which is using a software to develop its products and services but not
necessarily important.  In addition to
that, an organization called tech startup is a startup that operates its
products and services by using internet and technologies (Blank and Dorf,
2012).  A startup organization can be in all
the business sectors but for tech startup, an organization mostly is using a
mobile application or their own software and website to distribute the products
and services. In addition, Graham (2012) in Viinikainen (2013) explains that a
tech-startup or startup company is focused to grow fast.

2.6.1 Talents
in tech-startup

Vo
(2016) explains that in the tech-startup companies, talents are needed by them
to grow. Hiring the talents in tech-startup companies is not only the job for
human resources department (HR), but everyone’s responsibility within the
organization since the hired talents will work together with their assigned
team. Further, Vo (2016) suggests that in attempt to hiring the talents, HR
should have considered the strategy such as fast process but efficient to
fulfill the growth, help the managers to keep their team focused and motivated,
maintain the team performance as well as individual performance by giving them
training and personal development, and grant the talents with reasonable
compensation, rewards and recognition. Based on the characteristics of the
tech-startup companies and their needs in hiring the talents, it suits with the
characteristics of millennials. Thus, it cannot be ignored that tech-startup
companies may be included as one of the destination for millennials to starting
their job.

2.6.2 Tech-startup
in Indonesia

Radinal
(2016) mentions that, “Indonesia is
becoming a hotbed for startup”. In recent years, several startups have
appeared. Based on startupranking.com, Indonesia is ranked third after America
and India. Radinal (2016) also mentions that tech-startups companies are
becoming a big trend in Indonesia. This is also in line with the Viinikainen’s
study (2013) that says tech-startup in Indonesia is growing since the number of
emerging tech-startups are expanding and have been successfully collected
funding form some investors. 

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