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Surface samples will be collected from the 4 household kitchen by using wet cotton swabs over approximate 5cm X 5cm surface area. Swabs will be taken from inside: the refrigerator, oven, microwave; and surface of: cutting board, preparation table. Samples will be streaked on sterile Nutrient Agar, MacConkey Agar, Bile Esculin Agar and Mannitol Salt Agar using aseptic technique for isolation single colonies and examine after 18-24 hours growth.Nutrient Agar. General purpose nutrient medium which is used for cultivation and maintenance of non-fastidious species.Mannitol Salt Agar. More likely to see growth of staphylococci from samples taken in restaurant kitchen because large number of various people in contact with surface (cooks, waiters, drivers and others).MacConkey Agar. Agar is used for isolation and enumeration of bacterial coliforms in water, dairy products and biological specimens. Due to large use of water, various dairy products in household kitchen and restaurant kitchen is expected to see greater growth on this media.Bile Esculin Agar. The main use of media is to differentiate between enterococci/ group D streptococci and non-group D streptococci. Agar has simple composition: peptone, beef extract and agar which allow replication of a large variation of non-fastidious microorganisms.Media contains mannitol and phenol red pH indicator to allow identification of mannitol-fermenting bacteria and will be used for differentiation of S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Agar plate will be used as a selective and differential medium for the isolation of gram-negative bacilli based on ability ferment lactose.Agar principle based on the ability of bacteria to hydrolyse esculin and only few species of bacteria can hydrolyse esculine in the presence of bile.Bacterial colonies white, cream, or yellow in colour: Bacillus subtilisProteus vulgarisStaphylococcus aureusStreptococcus pyogenesEscherichia coliYeast, moulds Staphylococci aureus appear as yellow colonies with yellow zones in the media (mannitol fermenters)Staphylococci epidermidis will have clear pink to red colonies with no yellow colour change in the medium (non-mannitol fermenters)Non-lactose-fermenting colonies will appear transparent and colourless: Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Proteus spp., Yersinia spp.Lactose-fermenting colonies will be pink to red in colour: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp, Escherichia coli, Serratia sppGroup D streptococci and enterococci colonies will appear as small transparent colonies with blackening aroundIncluding pathogens as Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus bovisMany food borne illnesses originates from kitchen in household and restaurant environment. Food poison outbreaks from restaurant is not a rear issue. It may occur due to incorrect food storage, cross-contamination of fresh, raw and cooked food, and poor hygiene. Any of these factors originated in both household and restaurant environment but because of greater amount of food, people in restaurant these factors can be critical in food borne illnesses. 

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