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Sesame (Sesamum indicum l.) included in family
of Pedaliaccae, is an oldest known
oil crop to human and has been part of human diet since classical times 1. It is at 9th position among the top 13
oilseed crops which make up 90% of the world’s edible oil production 2. Sesame
oil is the major dietary oil in Asian countries. Sesame seeds are usually
cultivated for the purpose of oil extraction. Sesame oil is obtained by
extraction by hydraulic press or by solvent extraction method with hexane as a
solvent and refining of that extracted oil.  
 The implementation of sesame in
our diet it may helps in enhancing the taste of daily consumed dishes. Though
sesame seeds  not good source of starch
thease seeds have a pleasant flavour and its taste resembles the nuts, it can
spread over soups ,salads, and the 
baked  products can be
supplemented with whole sesame grains to get attractive  form that reform the final product texture.

As sesame
oil includes superior quantity of mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA’s) than
saturated fatty acids (SFA’s) it can improves the health of consumers. Besides
this MUFA’s this oil also contain bioactive compounds like phytosterols and
tocopherols. The typical proportions of FA’s in sesame oil are in following way.
3

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Linoleic

42.9-54%

Oleic

31.6-44%

Palmatic
Stearic 

7.0-9.7%
3.8-5.6%

 

 

The major
constituents of sesame seed are oil, protein, carbohydrates, lignin’s, and
minor constituents such as minerals. 4

Composition
of sesame seed (per 100 g)

Energy
( calories)

578

Moisture
(%)

4.7

Fat          (g)

51.9

Protein  (g)

19.8

Carbohydrates
(g)

18.4

Fiber
(g)

10.8

Ash
 (g)

5.2

Lignans  (g)

1.9

K  (mg)

400

Ca  (mg)

1200

Fe
(mg)

9.6

P
(mg)

9.6

Mg
(mg)

370

Na
(mg)

2

Vitamin
C (µg)

12

Vitamin
A (IU)

10

Carotene  (µg)

17

Thiamine
(mg)

0.95

Riboflavin
(mg)

0.25

Niacin
(mg)

5.1

Sesame
seed contain 20% and its defatted form contains 50% of protein.

Sesame
seeds contain phytochemicals which particularly have anti oxidant, antifungal, hypolipidaemic
and hypoglycaemic actions 5. Chlorosesamone, hydraxysesamone, 2,
3-epoxysesamone, anthrasesamones and other two anthraquinone derivatives are
the compounds having antifungal activities which are extracted from roots of
sesame plant 6. Sesamin and sesamolin are the most prolific
lignin’s which are soluble in fat 7. Sesamine and sesamoline consist of
benzene and furanose rings in their structure.

Tocopherol is a natural anti-oxidant and it is formed
by only the oil seeds like sesame and other oil seeds. The tocopherol content
in sesame is different from one location to another location and one variety to
another variety. Normally the sesame oil mostly includes ?-tocopherol in range
of 50 to 370 ppm and ?-tocopherol in range of 90 to 390 ppm this difference in
the content of thease tocopherol is due to their chemical nature 8. The
health benefits of thease tocopherols includes it act’s as  reactive oxygen species scavenger , acts as a
first line of defense against lipid peraxidation and  in cell membranes it protects the PUFA’s from
free radical attack 9,10

Sesame seeds contain two distinctive compounds sesamin
and sesamolin and with refinement of thease anti-oxidants, sesamol and
sesaminol are formed. Sesame oil has excellent stability to oxidation due to
presence of thease lignin’s 11.

Sesamum
indicum is used as external salve, emollient, tonic and diuretic
12. Sesamin and Sesaminol are the two major elements of the sesame oil which
have evidence to possess defensive action against several pharmacological
effects which includes thease acts as anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidant, anti-hypertensive,
and anti-inflammatory and also have cardio protective effects 13. Sesame oil
is used as nutritional supplement for the purpose of increasing the cell
resistance against lipid peraxidation by hindering the generation of reactive
oxygen free radicals 14.  Sesame oil
has capacity to increase the alpha tocopherol concentration in blood and tissue
it was seen in rat fed containing with sesame seed or its lignin’s15.Besides
this sesame oil showed that it have abundant free radical scavenging capacity
in methanolic fraction it is due to presence of phenolic compounds in it16. Apart
from lipid peroxidation and liberation of reactive oxidative species sesame oil
also increases the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes like glutathione peroxidise,
superoxide dismutase and catalase in rodents in certain oxidative stress 17,
18.

Generally sesame oil is referred as major source of edible
oil, commonly used in some drug formulations and also many industrial
preparations of perfumes, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, paints and varnishes 19,
20.

 

 

 

 

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