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Scale (used to rate the magnitude of an earthquake, that is the amount of energy released during an earthquake). Earthquakes larger than magnitude 4 on the Richter Scale occur each year around the globe. A magnitude of 4, suggests that the earthquake is a light earthquake, which can cause minor damage, such as, windows and doors to rattle, but no significant damages.The instruments used to measure seismic waves are seismometers, which are sensors converting ground motion into electrical voltage.A seismic event generates 2 types of seismic waves,1) Body waves travel through the interior of the earth.2) Surface waves travel along the surface of the earth.  Both types of wave are looked at during analysis to collect specific information on a particular event.OBJECTIVES OF SEISMIC MONITORINGThe objective of seismic monitoring is to detect and locate underground nuclear explosions. Data collected from seismic monitoring is used to differentiate between an underground nuclear explosion and the numerous natural and man-made seismic events, these can occur every day, such as earthquakes and mining explosions.Seismic technology is extremely efficient in suspecting nuclear explosions, this is because the waves travel so quick, that an activity creating these waves, can be registered by seismic stations, to the be distributed around the world in a matter of minutes.fThere are 2 types of body waves originating from a seismic event,1) P-waves are primary or compressional waves that alternately compress and expand the ground in the direction of the wave’s propagation, and these waves can move through any material.2) S-waves are secondary waves in the ground that move perpendicular to the direction of the wave’s circulation, and S-waves can only move through solids as this kind of movement is impossible in liquid or gaseous materials.  Scientists monitor the lithosphere, because this layer is under constant motion, but it moves slow and steady. These movements are responsible for the movements of the tectonic plates.                                                                       It is understood that the movement occurs due to the generation of the heat from the mantle to the crust.                The massive difference in the temperatures of the mantle and the crust cause these numerous ruptures to occur.    However, some suggest it is due to an external impact on the crust itself.                                                     The movement of these plates, or rubbing of these plates against each other, produces friction and is the cause of earthquakes.                                                                   The different sounds can help explain various aspects of the earthquake sequence, including the main shock and nearby aftershocks.For example, this graph (?) is the recording  of a Japanese earthquake which was taken near the coastline of Japan between Fukushima Daiichi and Tokyo.    The initial blast of sound is the 9.0 main shocks.                                                                                              As Earth’s plates slipped dozens of meters into new positions, aftershocks occurred. These plate adjustments will likely continue for years. help minimise the impact of changes to the earth’s structure in populated areas, scientists should build new infrastructure, away from earthquake-prone areas.                                         This will help decrease economical damage and lower the death rates caused by an earthquake.                                                                                    New infrastructure can be designed to tolerate strong shocks by using latest technology available.                                                                               Earthquake resistant designed buildings do not completely guarantee a perfect safety against collapse or serious damage as many of the aspects involved in the design of structures have large doubts.Linking to the idea of new infrastructure, the specialists can implement strategies on the populated locations and set a certain limit on the height of new buildings.                                                                                          But this can be an issue because the use of land in LEDC’s is in high-rural areas, and it’s more difficult to improve the situation because of the compact areas, etc. Factors Affecting The Impact Of An Earthquake• Distance from the epicentre, the effects of an earthquake is more severe at its centre.• The higher on the Richter scale, the more severe the earthquake is.• Level of development, MEDCs are more likely to have the resources and technology for monitoring, prediction and response, whereas LEDC’S will not have the resources needed to prepare themselves for an occurring earthquake.• Population density, the more densely populated an area, the more likely there are to be deaths and casualties.The Effects Of An Earthquake In LEDC’s – Populated Areas/Countries• Communication systems may be underdeveloped, so the population may not be well educated about what to do in the event of a volcanic eruption or an earthquake.• Construction standards tend to be poor in LEDC’s, which means homes and other buildings may suffer serious damage when a disaster occurs.• Buildings collapsing can cause high death tolls.• Evacuation and other emergency plans can be difficult to put into action due to limited funds and resources. Individuals can educate themselves and others on what to do in the event of an earthquake, drills.                                                                                                  For instance, in Haicheng, China, scientists identified changes in the ground level, leading to signs of an earthquake, authorities were informed and people started to evacuate the city.                                             90,000 people were saved from the 7.3 magnitude that destroyed 90% of the city.People can also make emergency plans, these are drawn up, and supplies such as bottled water, medicines, and tinned food are stockpiled by individual

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