Rules and regulations- FootballA.1 Rules:Offside- It’s against the rules for a player to touch the ball when they are closer to the other team’s goal than both the ball and the last defending opponent. If the offside rule does not exist then play will become very basic and boring with a lot of long balls and easy goals. Fouls/Misconduct- it is against the rules of football to make a tackle on your opponent which could be seen as dangerous. Also possession will be awarded to the opponent if the ball is deliberately handled. The referee may show the yellow card as a warning to players for less serious offences and the red card for more serious offences which results in the player being forced to leave the pitch. Free Kicks- they are given by the referee for fouls and misconduct or fouls. The free kick must be taken from a still position with that position depending on whether the free kick was given inside or outside the box. The team defending the free kick must be a minimum of 9 metres from the ball when the free kick is taken.Penalty Kicks- they are given against a team when they commit an offence which would normally be awarded a free kick inside the box. The ball is kicked from still position from the penalty spot which is 12 yards away from the goal line.Throw-in- are to restart play after the whole of the football has crossed the touch line.Goal kick- Used to restart play after the ball has crossed the goal line and was last touched by a member of the attacking teamCorner Kick- Is given when the whole of the football crosses the goal line and was last touched by a player on the defending team. A corner kick is taken from the corner closest to the point where the ball went out of play. The defending team must be at least 9 metres from the ball when the corner kick is taken. A.2 Regulations:Ball- Must be a circle shape, made out of a certain material like leather or something similar to leather, its circumference must also be 68-70 cm and blew up to a particular pressure. Number of Players- Two teams of 11 players, so 22 on a pitch.Equipment- Players must wear a shirt, shorts, socks, football boots and shin pads.Referee- the referee keeps the game under control and enforces the rules.Assistant Referees- there are 2 assistant referees. Duration of the Match- The game has 2 halves each 45 minutes.half time lasts 15 minutes. Also the referee is allowed to add more time to the end of each half to make up for lost time.Field of Play- The game is played on grass and on a rectangular shaped pitch. The two long sides of the pitch are called touchlines and the two shorter sides are called goal lines. The halfway line divides the two halfs.Restart and start of Play- a kick of starts the match off and after a goal. Before the game a coin is thrown to determine who has kickoff, after halftime the other team have this kick off. When a goal is scored, the team which conceded kick-off to restart play. Ball in and Out of Play- The ball is out of play when the referee has stopped the game by blowing his whistle. A.3 Scoring systems:Point system- In football 3 points are awarded to the team that win the match and no points awarded to the team that lost.if the game ends a draw each team gets one point.Goals- A goal is scored when the ball goes over the goal line, in between the posts and, given that no laws of the Game have been broken due to the lead up to the goal like an offside.A.4 Roles and responsibilities of officials: The referee is the one who takes charge of a match, with the help of two assistant referees.In professional matches, a fourth official is also involved.The referee enforces the laws of the game, awarding free-kicks if there is any foul play and keeping a check on the time.The ref can also stop, suspend or call off a match if there are weather or crowd problems.The assistant referee helps out with decisions such as throw-ins and offsides and sometimes will have a better view of incidents than the referee.The fourth official is based on the touchline, assisting with substitutions and keeping a check on the managers.Rules and regulations- RoundersA.1 Rules:Batting RulesAll batters must wait behind the batting square when waiting in line to bat. A batter must keep the bat in his hand whilst running round the bases. The batter is out when the batter is stumped out, you deliberately throw the bat, a batter runs inside one of the posts and step outside the square when hitting the ball.Bowling rulesNeed to make sure you stay in the bowling square when bowling because if you step out it will be a no ball. When the ball is thrown it must be thrown underarm and above need height and below head height, if these rules are not met, again it will be classes as a no ball. If the bowler bowls two no balls in a row a half a rounder will be awarded to the other team. You are not allowed to pretend to throw to ball to put the batter off,you must throw the ball in one clear motion. It is a no bowl when the ball is above head height or below knee height, when the ball is wide, when to bowler steps outside the square and when the ball bounces before getting to the batter.——A.2 Regulations: Teams can have a maximum of 15 players and a minimum of 6 players. One team bowls while the other team fields and bats. The bowler throws the ball to the batter, who hits the ball anywhere on the Rounders pitch. The batter then runs to as many posts as possible before the fielders return the ball to touch the post the batter is heading for.Games are usually played over 2 innings.When running around the track, batters must always keep contact with the post, either with their hand or bat. If you don’t, the fielders can stump you out at the following post.You don’t have to move to the next post every time a ball is bowled.A batter may not remain at the same post as another batter. The umpire shall order the player who batted first to run on and may be put out in the usual ways. If they are both between posts and the batter coming up the rear runs past, then they would be out as the overtaker.If you are at a post you cannot keep on moving to the next post when the bowler has the ball in his square. However, if you are between posts then you can keep on moving until you reach the following post.If a post has been previously stumped, you can run on to it but there will be no score if the next post ahead has been stumped. A.3 scoring systems:If the batter reaches the 2nd or 3rd post in one hit, the batting team scores ½ Rounder.If the batter reaches 4th post in one hit, the batting team scores a Rounder.A batter is out if the fielding team catch the ball hit by a batter before it touches the ground or by touching the post the batter is running to with the ball before the batter reaches it.If the runner reaches the 4th post on a no ball, the batting team scores 1 rounder. The batter cannot be caught out.1/2 rounder scored if the 4th post is reached without the batter hitting the ball.If the ball goes into the backward area the batter must stay at the 1st post until it reaches the outward area. If the 4th post is reached, 1 rounder is scored.If 2nd post is reached before the next ball is bowled, the batting team get 1/2 rounder, but if the batter continues to run and is put out before the 4th post then it is taken off.If the batter incurs 2 no balls in a row then a penalty 1/2 rounder is given to the batting team.There is a penalty 1/2 rounder given to the batting team if the batter is obstructed by a fielder.The team with the most rounders wins.——-A.4 Roles and responsibilities of officials:The two officials in rounders are called the batsman’s umpire and the bowling umpire. The batsman’s umpire job is to say whether it’s a rounder or not and to keep score and to keep score. Also they must call for no balls. The bowling umpire job is to say if the bowler has put his foot out of the bowling square. Compare and contrast rules of officialsSimilaritiesBoth officials must check the size and dimensions of the pitch so that rules are the same and fair between different fixtures and players don’t have to run further than others putting them at an unfair disadvantage. The officials also need to check that the equipment is not broke so that it does not affects the game. Both officials must confirm if a rounder or goal has been scored for example a point is awarded for a full rounder and half a point is awarded for half a rounder. the officials also boths need to make sure that all player are obeying the rules and if they are not need to be told and penalised if necessary. They both must have an open mind and not be biased to towards any teams because it is very unfair on the other team. be consistent on decisions and not be swayed on influences for example crowd and coaches.DifferencesThe officials in rounders are fairly static however the officials in football always have to be on the move because they need to have the best view of any incident. Also the officials in rounders have a certain part of the game they have to focus on for example the batting umpire only looks at the batter and the bowling umpire only looks at the bower, where as the officials in football have to be looking at every part of the game. football officials need to be a lot more physically fit because they cover a lot more ground than in rounders. Suggest how the rules,regulations or scoring systems could be modifiedRounders:A possible new rule could be that when the batter is caught out one handed then instead of that one person being out, the full team is out and the teams swap from batting to bowling. this would make the game a lot more intense and make the batter play a lot more technical shots due to more pressure being on the batter. also the bowling team could have five minutes of power play where they can bowl over arm making it a lot more harder for the batter to hit the ball. A base could be so that it is harder to get a rounder and people may be run out more often making to game a little bit harder and more technical. football:A new rule for football could be a sin bin just like in rugby where a player has to sit out for ten minutes which puts the offenders team at a disadvantage for a short period of time. also the size of the ball could be reduced which means the game will be made harder as the ball will be harder to control. Also for ten minutes a team is allowed to bring on an extra player giving them an advantage to push and possibly score a goal and after the ten minutes the player must instantly leave the pitch. Also a rule could be that when the attacking team enter the opponent’s half they are not allowed to go back into their own half, which makes the game a lot more attacking and intense.