REVIEW OF THE
of the related literature; besides allowing the researcher to introduce himself
with current knowledge in the field or area in which he is going to conduct his
research. A careful review of the books, dissertations, theses, research
journal and other sources of information related to the problem is one of the
important steps of any research study. The term ‘review’ means ‘revision’ or
‘refers back’. Research takes advantage of the past knowledge which has
collected in the past as a result of constant human efforts. So we cannot
isolate the work that has already been done on the problems which are directly
or indirectly related to a study proposed by a researcher. The review of the related
literature helps the researcher to define the limits of his research field. It
helps the researcher to delimit and define his problem.
to Aggarwal ‘the survey of related studies implies locating, studying and
evaluating reports of relevant researches, study of published articles, going
through related portions of encyclopaedias and research abstracts, study of pertinent
pages out of comprehensive books on the subject and going through related manuscripts
PURPOSE OF THE
reviewing the related literature the researcher can avoid unwilled copy of well-established
the review of related literature, the researcher can avoid unfruitful useless
problem areas. He can select those areas in which positive findings are very likely
to result and meaningful.
gives the researcher an understanding of the research methodology. It helps the
researcher to know about the tools and instruments which provide to be useful promising
in the previous studies. The advantage of the related literature is also to
provide insight into the statistical methods through which validity of result
to be established.
reviewing the related literature we know about the recommendations of previous
researchers listed in their studies for further research.
THE RELATED LITERATURE
first of all we identifying the material that is to be read and evaluated. The
identification can be made through the use of primary and secondary sources available.
A primary source includes the author reports, dissertations, theses, books and
research articles etc. In secondary sources, the author compiles and summarises
the findings of the work done by others. It includes encyclopedia of education,
educational indexes, abstracts and bibliographies etc.
review of related literature is being presented under four sections: Studies
related with teaching style, emotional intelligence, occupational stress and teaching
V.Surya and P.K Abdul Gafoor (2014)
conducted a study on “Teaching Competence and Teaching Style of Primary
School Teachers” and found that Teaching
Competence and Teaching Style differed from person to person in case of primary
school teacher, but the correlation between these two is positive. It reveals
that effective teaching style leads to higher Teaching Competence.
Bakhru, Dr. Seema Sanghi, Dr. Y. Medury (2013), carried out a study adopting a
data reduction technique to examine the presence of any complex structure among
a set of management teaching competency variables. A structured survey resulted
in the identification of fifteen management teaching competency areas; and were
explained in terms of Analytical & Problem Solving, Conceptual Thinking,
Mental Skills, Communication Skills, Knowledge and information orientation, Emotion
Handling & Persistence, Self-Dependence & Confidence, Adaptability,
Concern For Standard & Achievement, Being open & receptive, Planning
& Organizing, Interpersonal Management, Impact & influence, Discipline
& Delegation and Occupational Attachment & Organizational Setting.
These competency areas can form the basis for recruitment, training and
performance appraisal requirements in the context of Management teaching.
Hamdan et al (2010) studied the teaching competency
and dominant characteristics of 309 teachers from different secondary / primary
schools in Johor Bahru. The most dominant competency of the teachers was in
concern for school scales followed by skills, concern for self and concern for
Sabu (2010) conducted a study on in-service
training programmes and teaching competence of teachers. He concluded that
there is no significant difference in teaching competence of teachers with
regard to number of in-service programmes attended, age, gender and type of
Bondu, Raju &Viswanathappa
a study in influence of attitude towards teaching and teaching competence of
student teachers at school level and found that attitude towards teaching plays
a significant role in predicting the teaching competence of student teacher.
studied the indicators of teaching competence of teachers in DPEP and non-DPEP schools.
He found that: Classroom Teaching and Teaching Profession dimensions of Teacher
Attitude towards teaching have significantly influenced on Teaching Competence of
primary teachers in DPEP and non-DPEP schools whereas School Administration, Student Behaviour, Working Conditions and
Personal dimensions of Teacher Motivation do not influence Teaching Competence in
DPEP and non-DPEP schools.
Sudha (2004) conducted
a study on competency of teachers of differential organizational climates to
examine the effect of the organizational climate on the competency of primary
and found that teachers working in open, controlled closed climates were found
to be more competent than the teacher of paternal climate teachers of open
climate were found to be better in this competency than the teachers in
‘closed’ climate and also of the autonomous climate.
Sayeed and Mohamood
a study at investigating the competency level of primary school teachers in the
discipline of science, mathematics and pedagogy.
conducted a study
to determine the levels of adjustment and teaching competence of girl
student-teachers teaching science and non-science streams and found that there was
a significant correlation between the teaching competence and levels of
adjustment among the girl student-teachers who were teaching science subjects
and non-science subjects.
Venkataiah (1997) observed the impact of inputs
provided in District Institutes of Education and Training (DIETs) on teaching competency.
The objective of the investigation was to study the impact of inputs such as
adequacy of staff, student personal services, academic and auxiliary
facilities, co-curricular activities and practice teaching provided in DIETS on
teaching competency of student teachers. The findings of the study revealed
that: Student teachers belonging to DIETs with partially adequate staff were superior
in their teaching competency compared to their counterparts in DIETS with
inadequate staff; Individual guidance and tutorial system had significantly
influenced the teaching competency of student-teachers and the academic
facilities provided in DIETs and teaching competency were positively correlated.
Naseema (1994) studied teaching competence of
secondary school physical science teachers in relation to satisfaction of
teaching physical science. Major findings of the study revealed that: 30.92
percent of physical science teachers differed in perceived teaching competence
which can be attributed to work (0.01), rewards (1.73), context of work (0.87),
self (0.61), others (0.56) arid total satisfaction (27.15); whereas 26.89
percent of physical science teachers differed in observed teaching competence
which can be attributed to work (0.86), rewards (0.002), context of work (1.5),
self (2.32), others (1.91) and total satisfaction (20.3).
a study on Factors Affecting, Teaching Competency of B.Ed. Trainees in Teaching
Physical Science. The major objectives of the study were to identify factors
that affected the teaching competence of B.Ed., trainees, to assess the
teaching competencies of B.Ed. students using appropriate tools and to make differential
and correlational studies between teaching competence and various factors. It was found that training and microteaching
significantly increased teaching competence. The type of management, the time
of admission and the teacher-pupil ratio were also affected the teaching competence.
Hans (1986) studied the Relationship among
Teaching Style, Learning Gains and Teaching Effectiveness. The objectives of
the study were to compare teachers in respect of their personality attributes having
direct and indirect teaching influence styles, the effects of two teaching
styles on learning gains in classroom situations and the perception of students
in respect of teaching styles. The study was conducted in Bijnor district of
UP. The major findings of the study
The indirect teaching style teachers in general were
characterized by higher scholastic mental capacity and higher ego strength,
than their counterparts. Students taught through indirect teaching influence style
were having greater learning gains than those taught through direct teaching influence
style. There was significant difference between the perception of students
taught through indirect and direct influence styles.
Grasha (1996), intrigued by the relationship
between teaching styles and student achievement, sought to further define the
individual characteristics inherent to specific styles. Through his research he
identified five distinct teaching styles: expert, formal authority, personal
model, facilitator, and delegator (Grasha, 2004). Grasha?s research revealed
that teachers could influence student achievement by either assisting or
hindering their ability to acquire new knowledge. He further theorized that as
teachers become increasingly more aware of their teaching styles, they would be
able to adjust their instructional activities to specifically target the needs
of their students (1996).
One researcher (Mwangi,
2004) sought to determine teacher effectiveness in counselor education
based on teaching styles.
Nystrand, 1991). The indirect teaching style
takes a more integrative approach to teaching and incorporates student ideas
into the instructional plan (Cohen & Amidon, 2004; Gamoran & Nystrand,
Kassem (1992, p.
teaching techniques as teacher’s activities in the class to involve students in
the subject matter, and requires that students participate in learning
activities, share equally with other learners, and react to the learning
experience. The teacher also needs to work with students as a friend, make the
learning place more comfortable, organize his/her lesson plans, and influence
students by using different teaching methods. The teaching goals must be
adapted to the needs and interests of learners, while teaching strategies
should be carefully used to improve learning and make the subject matter
useful. According to several studies, these strategies have been found to be
significantly related to students’ learning achievement.
Dyer and Osborne
(1995, p. 260)
stated that students’ thinking skills and problem solving abilities can be
developed by teaching activities, especially by the selection of an appropriate
Chatoupis (2010) analyzed teaching styles and 38
placed them on a spectrum of various identifiable teaching characteristics.
Lagacé- Séguin (2009)
explored the relationship between teachers? teaching styles and the personal
behavioral factors that prompt students? own personal growth and development.
They found that teachers? teaching styles do more than influence their
students? knowledge and skill levels; they are also responsible for encouraging
or discouraging specific self-concepts that leave lasting impressions on the
way students develop their learning tactics.