Performance of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)
Varieties for Growth and Yield under Sub-Tropical Condition of Garhwal
Malee Ram Jhajhra*, Arjun Lal Ola, and D.K.
Dept. of Horticulture, School of Agriculture
and Allied Sciences,
H.N.B Garhwal University, Srinagar Garhwal,
Uttarakhand – 246174.
author [email protected]
Abstract: Field experiment was conducted at Horticultural Research Centre, H.N.B.
Garhwal University, Srinagar- Garhwal, Uttarakhand (India) during rabi season 2015-16 to identify the suitable
varieties for cultivation with high yield and quality traits using 15 varieties
(Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three
replication. The results are indicated that, the analysis of variance revealed
highly significant differences among varieties for almost all the traits. The
yield parameters showed that Rmt-1 variety significantly maximum plant
height (70.89 cm). The maximum number of primary branches (5.67) and secondary
branches (6.35) was found in JKSPLvariety. The maximum pod weight (13.35 g/plant), seed yield (8.51/ plant) seed yield (1610 kg/ ha) were recorded in variety of Rajandera Kranti.
Keywords: Fenugreek, Growth,
Variance, Variety and Yield
(Trigonella foenum graecum L.) called “Methi” in Hindi, is grown in
India as Rabi season crop,considered to be one of the major seed spices. It is
belongs to the family Leguminacae and sub family Papilionaceae. It is native to
southern Europe and Asia (Rathore, 2001). India is leading in fenugreek seed
production, producing about 90 % of the world fenugreek production (Acharya et
al., 2008). Major seed producing countries include India, Ethiopia, Egypt,
and Turkey. The seeds are golden in colour and rectangular in shape, averaging
4 mm in length, 2 mm in width, and 1.5 mm in thickness (Altuntas et al., 2005). The 1000-seed weight
varies from 15.5 – 16.4 g to 18-22 g and bushel weight is 25-27 kg (Thamburaj and Singh, 2005).
Kasuri Methi (Trigonella corniculata) is slow growing plant remains in a rosette
condition for most part of the vegetative growth (Dhaliwal, 2012). It is
mainly grown as leafy vegetable and seeds in the plains of north India. Its
fresh tender leaves and pods are eaten as fried vegetable being rich in iron,
calcium, protein and vitamins (Singh et
The seeds also contain major nutrients like
minerals, vitamins A & B, P and K and minor nutrients like Ca, Fe and Na
and amino acids like leucine, valine lysine and phenylalanine besides
cellulose, hemicelluloses and oleoresin which are used in flavours. Fenugreek
oil is used in butterscotch, cheese, liquorices, pickle, rum, syrup and vanilla
flavours. Powdered seeds or seed extracts are used as flavor and aroma agents
in the food and cosmetic industries and dyes in the textile industry (Duke et al., 1981).
A wide range of medicinal properties has been
attributed to fenugreek such as wound-healing, bust enhancement, enhanced
lactation in weaning mothers, as an aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic,
antihyperthyroidism, anticancer, gastro-protective, antioxidant, antipyretic,
antimicrobial, anthelmintic, antisterility, antiallergy and antiin flammatory
effects (Acharya et al., 2008).
cultivar performs differently under different agro- climatic conditions and
various cultivars of same species grown even in same environment oftenly have
yield differences. Because, yield and quality of crop are very complex
characteristics depending on certain biological alignments between environment
and heredity. The characteristics of a cultivar as well as combination of
traits differ according to climate condition of the localities.
Materials and Methods
The experimental materials constituted a
collection of 15 varieties of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) namely, AFG-1,
AFG-2, AFG-3, K-25, Kasuri Methi, JKSPL, Local-1, Local-2, Local-3, Local-4,
Local-5, Local-6, Rajandera Kranti, Rmt-1and T-1 varieties were collected from N.R.C.S.S. Ajmer
(Rajasthan), Jaipur (Rajasthan), Nagaur (Rajasthan), Srinagar (U.K.), Rishikesh
(U.K.), Jobner (Rajasthan), Kota (Rajasthan), Alwar (Rajasthan), S.K.N. jobner,
Jaipur (Rajasthan). The
experiment was conducted in rabi season, 2015-16 at Horticultural Research
Centre of H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar (Garhwal) situated in the
Alaknanda valley (78° 47′ 30″ E longitude and 30° 13′ 0″ N latitude
and at an elevation of 550 m above MSL), a semiarid, sub-tropical climate with
dry summer and rigorous winters with occasional dense fog in the morning hours
from mid December to mid February. The experiment was laid out in Randomized
Block Design with three replications. The entire experimental field was divided
into three blocks of equal size and each block possessed 15 plots. Each plot
measured 5 X 1 m2 area. The varieties were sowed at spacing of plant
to plant is 30 cm and row to row 15 cm and seed are sown 1.5 to 3cm deep in the
soil. All the recommended agronomic practices were followed to raise a healthy
crop. Observation were recorded on quantitative and qualitative traits viz., Days taken to germination, Plant
height (cm), Number of
leaves per plant, Days
taken to 50% flowering, No.
of pod/ plant, Pod length(cm.), Pod weight/plant (g), Seed yield /plot (g),
Seed yield/ha. (kg), on five
randomly selected plants. The data obtained from selected plants were subjected
to analysis of variance (Panse and Sukhatma, 1967).
Results and discussion:
The analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences for all
the characters. The data presented in Table 1 and fig 1. Showed that
significant differences were recorded among the radish varieties. The maximum germination
percentage (81.36) was recorded
in Rajendra Kranti,
whereas the minimum (64.70) germination percentage was observed in Local-5 variety. The variation in germination among the
varieties might be attribute to a climatic factor viz., temperature, rainfall
and relative humidity which can enhance seed germination. The similar results
obtained are accordance with the findings of Vasudevan et al. (2008) in fenugreek.
The maximum plant height (70.89 cm) was
recorded under the variety of Rmt-1, whereas the minimum plant height (59.49cm)
was recorded under the variety Kasuri methi. Different responses to
plant height might be due to genetic characteristic of genotypes and
adaptability to a particular environment. These findings confirm the result
obtained by Aggrwal et al., (2013); Chowdhury et al., (2014) and Singh et
al., (2015) in fenugreek. The maximum number of leaves (109.33/ plant) was
recorded in the variety K-25, whereas the minimum number of leaves after harvest 43.67 was
recorded under the variety Local-3. The number of leaves is an important
character as the leaves are the plant factories for manufacturing
photosynthesis. Therefore, the cultivar with more number of leaves generally
gives high yields. These results obtained are accordance with the finding of Aggrwal et
al., (2013) in fenugreek and Magashi et al., (2014) in cowpea.
Table 1: Mean performance of
fenugreek varieties for germination percent plant height and number of leaves.
Name of varieties
CD at 5%
1: Mean performance of fenugreek varieties for germination percent plant height and
number of leaves.
of various treatments with respect to days taken to 50% flowering was found to
have significant variation (Table 2-3 and fig 2-3). The minimum number of days
34.33 taken to 50% flowering was recorded under Rajandera Kranti, whereas the
maximum days 41.33 taken to 50% flowering was recorded under K-25. The possible
reason of early flowering in certain genotypes indicated adaptability of these
genotypes in a particular environment, better and efficient utilization of
nutrients in a relatively hostile environment which might have resulted in
early termination of vegetative phase and initiation of reproductive stage as
compared to genotypes which took longer time to flowering. Similar results have
also been reported by Pushpa et al.,
(2012) and Singh et al., (2015) in fenugreek.
The maximum number of pod 71.51 per plant was recorded under
the variety Local-4 and Kasuri methi, whereas the minimum number of pod 29.78
per plant was recorded under the variety Local-5. This might be
due to congenial climatic condition like cool relative humidity, low
temperature and optimum photoperiod for luxuriant vegetative growth and
flowering which favors betters pods production. This may possibly due to its
good plant growth and comparatively more number of primary branches causing
greater assimilation of the photosynthate which ultimately resulted into higher
yield. These similar results were agreement with the findings of Chowdhury et al., (2014); Thakral et al., (2006) and Malik and Tehlan (2009) in fenugreek.
The maximum length of pod 12.25cm
was recorded under the variety Rmt-1, whereas, the minimum length of pod 2.28cm
was recorded under the variety Kasuri methi. The reason behind the
variations of pod might be due to the genetic makeup of variety by Datta &
Chatterjee (2004); Pushpa et al.,
(2012) and Malik and Tehlan (2009) in
The variety Rajandera Kranti (V13) significantly
highest total weight of pod per plant 13.35 g, whereas the minimum total weight
of pod per plant 8.53 g. was recorded under the variety Local-3 (V9).
These similar results were agreement with the findings of Pushpa et al., (2012) in fenugreek. The
maximum seed yield per plot 805.00 g and seed yield 1610.00kg/ha were recorded
under the variety Rajandera Kranti, whereas, the minimum seed yield per plot
287.33g and seed yield 574.66 kg/ha were recorded under the variety Kasuri
The increase in seed yield might be due to favorable climatic conditions like
temperature, high relative humidity and optimum sunshine hours. The similar
results were founded by Datta & Chatterjee (2004); Pushpa et al., (2012); Thakral et al. (2006) and Singh
et al., (2015) in fenugreek.
Table 2: Mean performance of
fenugreek varieties for Days taken to 50
% flowering, No.
of pod per plant and Pod
Name of varieties
Days taken to 50 % flowering
No. of pod per plant
Pod length (cm)
CD at 5%
Table 3: Mean performance of
fenugreek varieties for Pod wt per
yield per plot(g)and Seed
wt per plant(g)
Seed yield per
2: Mean performance of fenugreek varieties for Days taken to 50 % flowering,
No. of pod per plant
and Pod length.
3: Mean performance of fenugreek varieties for Pod
wt per plant, Seed
yield per plot and Seed
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