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High mobility: In vehicular
networks, the vehicles move very fast and they ought to remain
connected either the vehicle are in the same signal range or not.
The higher mobility of the nodes demands frequent information
updated amongst the connected nodes.

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Rapid changing topology:
Vehicular network is a complex network that
comprises different types of vehicles with
different high speed and
these vehicles ought
to communicate with each other, for communication to take place in
vehicular networks, channels are established, broken and reconnect
rapidly when the vehicle density is higher . The topology could
change when existing channel breaks before establishing new channel
due obstructions on the road. However, the dynamic speed of the
vehicles will have significant effects on routing protocol
performance and mobility pattern which raises the need of research
for topology enhancement.

Geographic location
accessibility: Vehicles in vehicular networks are equipped with
accurate positioning systems integrated by electronic maps such as
Global Positioning System (GPS) to provide location information for
routing purposes.

Openness of communication
path: the nodes in vehicular networks communicate through wireless
channels and the network ought to remain operation at all time for
the network to be effective.

Power constraint free: Unlike
devices in wireless mobile technologies such as Wireless Sensor
Network (WSN), power is not consider as constraint issue since nodes
are vehicles instead of small handheld devices in MANET, the
vehicle’s batteries recharge capability solves power constraint in

Real time warranty: A
vehicular networks applications provide services such as real time
information on hazard warning, collision avoidance, and traffic
status information. These mean the applications ought to adopt
strict time compliance for appropriate message transmission.

Self-organizing and
Self-configured: The network connection in vehicular network is
self-organised and configured, that mean, for communication to take
place between two more vehicles, the support of gateway device like
Access Point (AP) is not required, the vehicles creates channel
among them self for information and resource sharing.

Real-time processing: VANET
communication requires fast processing of information and instance
information transmissions, the communication requires no much delay
during information exchange.

1.9 Vulnerabilities in
vehicular networks

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