Overworking occurs when one is working beyond his endurance and recuperative capacities. It becomes a hazard at times when worked to the point that it exceeds their abilities to recover or make provisions for physical and emotional needs (Rhoads, 1977).Working beyond normal, standard or agreed upon hour begins to entail escalation risks and harm is to come from overworking. Overworking specifically refers to the consequences of operating at overcapacity.
Any addition hours spent at work eventually creates fatigue or stress. This can affect the worker’s physical or mental health, well-being health or quality of life which will not be suitable in the longer run. Workers who work excessively are considered over-workers not because of perceived returns but rather despite a perceived lack compensation for the organization (Peiperl and Jones, 2001).
Students who are in middle school to college suffer overtime in school especially when examination approaches and the teachers give a surge of paper works or project. This dilemma causes many students to spend overtime on their work and other students chose not sleep just to accomplish all of their work and submit it on time, but these had consequences that affect the lifestyle of our individual. A wide of body of research has shown that overwork can negatively impact your sleep whether it’s the resulting stress, the staring at the computer screen, or just not having enough time to unwind before sleeping.
This can cause us to build up what’s called sleep debt, which is kind of like being overdrawn at a bank. Chronic sleep debt raises the risk of obesity, heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. In the short-term, lack of sleep can have significant effects on the hippocampus, an area of the brain involved in memory creation and consolidation ( Kolowich, 2017).
Working too much can take a toll on the body and brain in two main ways — by increasing stress and by getting in the way of exercise, healthy eating, and other good habits. For example, when you’re tired, you tend to rely more on caffeine to stay awake for the day or tend to make unhealthy food choices and working out becomes a thing of the past as one has less time to do so.
A study in the journal Nature Communications found that when people are overtired, healthy food choices tend to go down the drain for two reasons. First, being overtired slows activity in the areas of our brains responsible for ranking different foods based on what we want and need. Secondly, this affects brain’s amygdala, which is responsible for controlling the salience of food. Over time, poor food choices can possibly lead to weight gain and even obesity (Kolowich, 2017).
In 2015, a group of researchers investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. They found that the link between longer working hours and type 2 diabetes is apparent in individuals in the low socioeconomic status groups. This was true regardless of age, sex, obesity, and physical activity, and remained even when they excluded shift workers from the analysis. Another study showed an association between long hours and type 2 diabetes in low-income workers ( Kolowich, 2017 ).
For the study, researchers from University College London compiled data on the relationship between working hours and heart attack risk in over 600,000 workers, as well as similar data on stroke risk in over 500,000 workers. They considered and adjusted their data to compensate for individual workers’ differences due to health behaviors, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity, and also adjusted for the presence of other cardiac risk factors, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol. The research had found out that those who worked more than 55 hours per week had a 13% greater risk of a heart attack, and were 33% more likely to suffer a stroke, compared with those who worked 35-40 hours per week ( Ross, 2015 ).
In most developed countries, overwork is not seen as a main threat to human health. However, death from overwork is common enough in Japan that there is a word for it: kar?shi. Japanese corporate workers, or salarymen, have a tradition of lifelong job security. Unfortunately for them, they had to work more time despite not even being paid for their effort of overtime. Workaholism is so common that Japan’s government has decided to impose a mandatory five-day annual vacation. In China, death from overwork, known there as guolaosi, is also said to be widespread. An epidemic of cigarette smoking is probably a major contributing factor; 63% of middle-aged men in East Asia are regular smokers ( Ross, 2015 ).
Using the utility of overtime doesn’t mean that it is always efficient and effective. In fact, one study found that in an 8-hour work day, most people are the most productive between hours 2 and 6, and by hour 9, the performance of productivity exceedingly drops (Knabel, 2016 ).
Overworking affects ability to perform usual work tasks, such as making decision making, comprehending people, and managing emotional reactions (Knabel, 2016). Working late once in a while towards a project or work emergency are understandable and doesn’t negatively impact your health. However, doing this so often by routinely working late for school or at work or chronic overworking can always severely put negative impacts on your health, relationships, happiness, and overall quality of life.(Knabel,2016).
Common side effects of overworking are added stress, staring at the computer for too long, or lack of time to unwind, which can all negatively impact of getting a good proper sleep. Chronic sleep loss raises the risk of many illnesses, such as obesity and heart disease, and can have an impact to your brain to have short-term memory( Knabel, 2016 ).