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Over recent years, a lot of disputed issues have been said
about autonomous vehicles. These “automatic” cars are a life-changing
technology that could have important significant changes for society, national
security, the economy, and the environment. On May 8, 2015, the Center for
Technology Innovation and the U.S. Department of State hosted a panel
of experts to discuss the potential for driverless cars domestically and
abroad. The potential benefits of autonomous vehicles are exciting but
innovators and government officials must first overcome several barriers to
embark on change. Automation is transforming the way our economy works, for
example, ATMs and self-checkout lanes in the grocery store. In the future,
computers will be able to do many of the things that only a human can do today
3. Driverless cars could displace parts of the labor force. For example,
automated trucks could remove the need for human drivers in some sectors. Self-driven
cars have been developed by several companies across the world. Some of the
major autonomous care developing companies include BMW, The ford group, Audi,
General Motors, Google, Volkswagen, and Volvo. Google was the first company to
come up with its Six Toyota Prig and Audi TT that navigated the streets and
highways of California using the Google map for about 140,000 miles. During the
test, a single accident occurred on one of the infrequent occasions when a
human was behind the wheels. Another test of 1000 miles with the same cars
proved to be successful without human intervention. Therefore, based on this
understanding, the following report is a systematic review of the controversy
behind the self-driven cars. The paper will focus on both technical aspects and
social aspects of the cars in the current and future generation.

Self-driving, which was a few years ago considered just a
science fiction is rapidly evolving in the world technology. With the highest
level of dynamics, some quick institutions have been misleading and addressing
misconceptions about the new technology, its impact, and the process abounds
with the innovations 5.  For the
greater percentage of the world population, self-driven cars are viewed as just
an abstraction. They are still viewed as just occasional media and press
stories that are futuristic, far off and full of fantasy. However, the event of
the past one year could play a role in putting that skepticism to rest. Several
activities have taken place over the past few months that have signaled the
shift in the trajectory of autonomous cars. 
The current innovations have also proven that vehicles are very much
closer to reality 5. Technological experts who focus a lot on emerging
technology have shown a positive impression with the pace of development in the
past few two years of development in self-driven cars. According to Greg
Rodgers, a policy analyst “Eco Center for Transportation,” the
self-driven cars are moving very fast and are about to graduate from infancy to
adolescence. Therefore, it is important to study the technical aspects and
socio-economic impact of self-driven cars to bury the ongoing misconceptions
and misleading information about the cars.

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This report will cover the historical development, related
works, technical aspects, social impact, professional issues, career
opportunities, and ethical issues of self-driving cars.

 

Experiments
have been conducted on automating driving since at least the 1920s; promising
trials took place in the 1950s. Car manufacturing companies and futurists
envisioned what would it be like to be able to travel in a self-driving vehicle
as you can see in Figure 1 above. The first truly autonomous prototype cars
appeared in the 1980s, with Carnegie Mellon University’s Navlab and ALVprojects
in 1984 and Mercedes-Benz and Bundeswehr University Munich’s EUREKA Prometheus
Project in 1987. Since then, numerous companies and research organizations have
developed prototypes. In 2015, the US states of Nevada, Florida, California,
Virginia, and Michigan, together with Washington, D.C. allowed the testing of
autonomous cars on public roads. 4

 

In 2017 Audi
stated that its latest A8 would be autonomous at up to speeds of 60 km/h using
its “Audi AI”. The driver would not have to do safety checks such as
frequently gripping the steering wheel. The Audi A8 was claimed to be the first
production car to reach level 3 autonomous driving and Audi would be the first
manufacturer to use laser scanners in addition to cameras and ultrasonic
sensors for their system. 7.

There has been increasing number of literature and journals
that have addressed the robotics behind the self-driven cars. A journal that
addresses the evolving core technology, various experts provide reasons why
autonomous cars should replace the human-operated machines 4. Litman in “The
Autonomous vehicle implementation predictions. Victoria Transport Policy
Institute, 28”, detailed the predicted assumptions and the positive impact of
the autonomous cars to the 21st-century generation 7. Other Journals such as
Waymo, from the BMW Company and “The Guardian,” have addressed the controversies
behind the self-driven cars and how they will have a positive impact on the
general automotive industry.

Self-driven cars have wide technical aspects that need to
be understood by consumers before purchase. First, the “driver” sets the
car’s destination, and the software will calculate the route and start the car
towards the way 9.  The car has a
rotating mounted roof “Light Detection and Ranging” (LIDAR). Using the roof, it
can monitor 60 meters range area and create a dynamic 3D map for the car’s
current position. The left rear wheel has a sensor that monitors the car’s
movement and position relative to the 3D map. The front and back bumpers are
installed with a “radar” sensor to calculate distant obscenities. The cars have
Artificial intelligence (AI) that is connected to all Google sensors and inputs
from the Google streets. It also views the camera video in the car 9. The AI
also serves as the decision makers and stimulates the human perception of the
brakes and wheel control.  The car
installed software consults the Google maps to get the notice of landmarks,
traffic signs, and the lights. Lastly, the car has an override function that
can allow human to take control of the car at some point. According to
proponents of autonomous cars, it is believed that they will avoid an accident
caused by human error. As depicted in Figure 2, 72% percent of accidents are
due to human error.

According to An Australian law professor Des Butler, the
Driverless cars can build a “gold mine “of personal data of the
persons using them. This can be used by private companies to easily target the
peoples as prospective customers.  He
added that the privacy issues related to self-driven cars were a “sleeper
issues” that the regulators had not considered fully. For instance, the
vehicle will know where one’s frequent destination, the business he or she does
and may build a profile based on those details 4. Therefore, individual will
just be using then cars not knowing how much data is being generated from them
and how those data can be easily used.

However, according to the research that was carried out by
iMOVE on their move to develop technology and to expedite the ‘intelligent
transport system,’ it is evident that driverless cars are an attempt to reduce
the traffic congestion in most of the urban centers. According to the managing
director of iMOVE Ian Christensen, the goal of driver fewer cars was to improve
the movement of freight and people in various destinations 7. It is also
believed that the technology can play a huge role in reducing road tolls and
driver error accidents. For instance, Australia that record 1300 road-related
deaths every year with annual road crashes of $30bn can stand at a greater
advantage of the driverless cars to save on their economy loses. However,
driverless cars do not know how to dodge Kangaroos. The U.S Tesla model S was
reported to have driven in a truck while in autopilot mode. Therefore, there
are still significant questionable benefits about the self-driven car benefits.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is completely on board with
automated cars and or the safety developments that are growing from this field.
They surmise that the safety implementations will outweigh the negative
aspects. As described in Figure 3, some of the safety aspects are maintaining a
safe distance, cars are not allowed to drive too closely to the cars in front
of them.

In figure 4,
there is preventing forward collisions, with instant warning systems, one would
be alerted when a car has stopped suddenly in front of you causing your car to
brake. There is BackupAssist, a technology that helps with backing up safely,
lane safety, a technology that helps keep the cars in their lanes (used now as
an alert when a car drifts out of the lane, and parking assist, helps to
parallel park (in use now). Because “94% of serious crashes involve human
error” 2, NHTSA believes self-driving cars will not only save lives but
money.

 

Driverless cars
require no professionalism other than the one already installed in the car
Artificial intelligence system. It is a more advanced luxury in the world
history. The car system will have to perform all the more of the tasks that are
done by manual drivers. The driver or the passenger gets into the car and tells
the car a specific destination. The car then gets the route and the access road
through its Google map sensors and starts the drive on its own. This is more
luxurious 3. However, in a case where the driver may want to assume the
normal manual operation of the car, it is still possible but with the ordinary
driving skills and rules. All that is required is for the user to take caution
of possible implication that may go beyond the programmed technology. Because
if the system fails to perform from how the driver anticipates, then it can be
dangerous.

 

 

 

The advancement
in the state of driverless technologies and the amount of capital that
investors are pouring into the sector, there is no doubt that in the next 10
years, the self-driven cars will be the norm. Currently, there are over 1.4
billion cars on the road. The cars are going to be replaced by the self-driven
cars. According to reports from the Financial Times, 2017, there will be over
10 million self-driven cars on the road by 2020 4. The rising interest in the
cars and the proven excellence will see out of four cars on the road, 1 being a
self-driven by 2030. This is because the cycle of technology adoption is
compressing steadily. While it took 50 years for 60% of US household to adopt
electricity, it only took 5 years for the smartphone to reach that penetration
4. Once a single self-driven car moves out to the market and gets sold, few
people will want the obsolete manual cars. In addition, the recent improvement
in safety will make it necessary for the manual cars to be outlawed outside
race tracks and hobby clubs.

 

 

Over the past 6
months, dozens of companies have posted 350 job listings and Education programs
looking for self-driving car talents. Most of the jobs fell under the broad
aspects of self-engineering. Some are also specific to dynamic in-vehicle modeling
engineers and the reality capture processors 8. Google has its headquarter in
Mountain View has launched the autonomous car program that and has topped by 52
job listings 8. The main skills looked at are the computer programming c++
and the python together with computer simulation, visual and robotics. The
hiring needs of Google could even shift as a result of 5300 sq facility in the
Detroit suburb of Novi. The self-drive car technology will have a massive
career success for the job seeker and business people. In Table 1, we present
several jobs that may be affected by the development of this technology and
what the outlook is (according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 1, some
of these together include robotics).

 

Autonomous
vehicles may help in reducing mortality and morbidity related to manual
operated motor vehicles. It is therefore that the car’s design and application
should be tempered with by strictly devised regulations with consideration of
informed and collaborative governmental process that meets the objectives and values
of social well-being.

 

For example,
the normal driving on frequent occasions poses the certain challenging
situation that requires drivers to come up with sophisticated and instantaneous
ethical decisions. Assuming that the self-driven cars need only to follow road rules
is simplistic 6. For instance, when a driver is driving and deliberately
crosses over the yellow line into the next empty line of the oncoming vehicle
car rather than run on another person changing his or her vehicle busted tire
on the shoulder of the road. Such a simple ethics cannot be applied by a
machine that is algorithmically forced to follow the road rules. Another
instance is when a driver jumps a traffic light to get out of the path of the
train. These are simple logic and ethical reasoning about safety that could not
apply to robotics. Driverless cars, just like the human diver need to balance
legal rules, safety, and mobility which is always conflicting. The car will be
required to make a quick decision in situational programs that were not
considered by the programmers. The robotics cannot have the human sense of
safety and will follow the rules even when causing harm. This is ethically
dangerous to the public health and wellbeing.

 

To summarize,
Intel and Waymo technological secret forever a decade is now running, I to the
entire world history of innovation. Self-driven cars are about to take over,
and the whole world is going to experience the most luxurious cars on the road.
The world is going to record few current generation and the future and should
be welcomed as quickly as possible.

 

Accident
avoidance is the major incentive because the car can respond faster than a
human. In addition, people can arrive more relaxed after a long trip. Vehicles
can travel closer together on the road, and computers can operate them more
economically than people. The ultimate manifestation is the reduction of
vehicles. For example, driverless taxis could replace a family’s second car
that may sit idle a lot of the time. Of course, fewer cars overall have other
implications If thousands of lives can be saved each year, driverless cars will
be a huge benefit. However, there are situations that are not so
straightforward. For example, drivers on their daily commute in winter months
know when steep hills are coming and may slow down considerably when
temperatures fall below freezing. In addition, how will an automatic vehicle
analyze hand signals from a policeman or road worker when an accident has
occurred or when repairs are taking place? It will take time to iron out the
many exceptions to routine driving. Along with the huge technology challenge,
state laws are being changed to allow them on the road. Whether driverless cars
become mainstream in a few years remains to be seen. However, in the meantime,
accident prevention systems in regular cars are becoming much more advanced as
a result of all the research 10.

 

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