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Nowadays, technology is advancing to make the world of retailing is more challenging in the world. The physical retail store is facing the challenge by e-commerce with low cost and more promotion or discount in the market. The rapid development of Internet has to change the global trading, sellers can save more cost for the rent of store to build their advantage and compare with the physical retail store. Network development can make the trade process become easy, sellers can direct delivery the good to the consumer. However, it will other problem some like delivery time and extra charge cost of production per unit. Consumer need to facing the risk of product states or how to use the products, we need to know some e-commerce sellers after sell service is bad. Therefore, the traditional retailers will provide the physical store to enable the consumers to come to see, touch and test the products before they purchase to solve the problem has to face at e-commerce (Rigby, 2011). The reason why retailers do it is that sometimes consumers may need the products in urgent, it can help them to save the time for waiting the products to be shipped. For the service retailers, they need to face to face with consumers. People cannot purchase this kind of services at online channels like a car wash, hair cutting and car repair. This essay will be discussed the definition of retailing and the Stimuli-Organism-Response (SOR) model relationship. What is SOR model? SOR model is also mean that Mehrabian-Russell model, that have 3 parts that are stimulus, organism and response to affect the consumers. (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974). It also can say is a marketing tool system because it can analyse how the retail store atmosphere can affect their customer hedonic (Donovan & Rossiter, 1982). Stimulus is music, colour, temperature and layout how they can affect the consumers. After the stimulus stage, it will go to organism stage that means PAD also known as pleasure, arousal, dominance (Donovan & Rossiter, 1982). It is an emotional stage to mean how the feeling and emotion of the customers. The last one is the response, it is the whole process of SOR model, how the stimulus affects the customers and how the customers with what emotional to response on consumer behaviour (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974). This literature will deep analysis about how the stimuli can effect on consumer behaviour in the physical retail store. Retail is defined by Levy and Weitz (2001) focus on consumers like final personal, family or household use. It also can say that retail is not business-to-business transactions. According to Mathur (2010), retailing is buying the large quantities and selling in small quantities to consumers. In the sell channels, the retailer is the relationship between the supply and demand. Retailers are important in the market because it can let the manufacturers focus on producing the products, manufacturers no need to distract on how to service and communicate with the consumers. In the retail store, consumers can easy to compare the product and service, that is advantage compare with purchase in the network. The first is stimuli, it can be defined as the external factors or environmental inputs (Bagozzi, 1986). The stimulate can affect the consumers purchase mood. The atmospheric stimuli in the retail store can be sound, colour, lighting, scent and layout. Nowadays the competition is intensifying, if the retail store wants to continue to be competitive and stand on the market, retailers need to attach on how to create the store atmosphere to upgrade the customer shopping experience and purchase mood. Upgrade customer shopping experience not only sell the product with low price, good service quality or create new products. It gets the satisfaction in the consumers’ mind. “Atmosphere” this word has come from Kotler (1973), he says that plan for a retail space and designs it. Retail store atmosphere is designed by retailers what emotional effects want to produce for consumers, the atmosphere can increase the likelihood of them to walk in the retail store to purchase your products (Kotler, 1973). Atmospherics is base on hearing, smelling, sight and touch get the surrounding feeling at the retail store is the role to create a good mood and emotion for consumers. In today, a lot of authors have studied to support that the retail store atmosphere can get the positive effect to consumer (Duve, Chebat & Morin, 1995. Soars, 2009). In addition part, retail store atmosphere a relationship between consumer behaviour, a good store atmosphere can increase the buying behaviour of consumers (Turley & Milliman, 2000). The second is an organism, it is the step for refers to the receivers of the stimuli especially the consumer. This is how about the customers’ emotional states. When customers receiver the stimuli, they will show the different response. Bagozzi (1986) states that organism will have different response base in feeling, mind thinking and physiological. The organism is between stimuli and response. Base on the Mehrabian and Russell (1974) SOR model, the model shows that the three basic emotional states are pleasure, arousal and dominance (PAD). Pleasure is mean the feeling is happy and enjoy, arousal is mean the feeling stimulated and excited, dominance is feeling like relax, freedom and control. If retailers going to compare with other and try to get the share in the large market, they need to deep stimuli the customers. When consumer feel enjoys the feeling process by retailers, then customers will response what retailers want. The last one is the response, it can be mean final results for the whole model. It can be the results outcome, reaction or behaviour of consumers. However, there has two type of response to buying behaviour one of it is hedonist another is utilitarian. Different type buying behaviour have different satisfy emotion, retailers must know that customers enter the store and purchase the product is for hedonist or utilitarian. Customers shopping behaviour is for the hedonist, it means that they enjoy shopping behaviour in the store is for happy and relax (Babin, Darden & Grifflin, 1994). If they shopping behaviour is for utilitarian, customer focus on the function of the product. A good design store atmosphere can affect the customer impulse buying, it is because the atmosphere makes their mood want to buy (Chang, Eckman & Yan, 2011). How to affect the two different style customers to purchase the product, the reason is come from how the atmosphere effect, it can be designed on the retail store (Donovan and Rossiter, 1982; Mehrabian and Russell, 1974). If customers leave or not return to retail store it may be atmosphere environment is failing, the retail store will lose the customer (Bitner, 1992). The sound is one of the stimuli important in the retail store and closely linked to music. Study of Turley and Chebat (2002) have shown that music player is an important key to a marketing tool to affect consumer behaviour. Music is a marketing tool can be used to affect the customers base on the quality of music. Consumers can get the different effect from the music divided among three physical dimensions as tempo, genre and volume (Soars, 2009). Music can create an environment to affect consumers because it is a good atmospheric element and easy to use compared with other. It is a low cost and easy to manage, sometimes it also can bring the message to the target have been plan be the retail store. The influence of music on consumer behaviour within purchase environment has been agreed by a variety of scholars (Milliman, 1982; 1986; Yalch and Spangenberg, 1990; North and Hargreaves, 1996). Music can be design with what things want to bring to the consumer that why it has been highlighted away can affect the emotion and mood of the consumer.  In 1959s, has an original study argues that music is a language. Deryck Cooke has used hundreds of musical to support his view one of it is emotion and meaning write by Leanord B. Meyer in 1956s. Music also can show the culture of the brand, the different culture will play with different type of music. According to Milliman (1982), the study shows that fast tempo music compares with slow tempo music, the latter can make customers spent more time in the retail environment. Slow tempo music will spend more time to purchase, it also can mean increase the customers’ purchase rate. At another way, fast tempo music will make customers spent less time on purchase behaviour, it is because the fast tempo music will accelerate the somatosensory, customers will feel that already spent much time on purchasing. In a restaurant environment, most of the consumers will spend more time to enjoy their meals if playing relaxing music to build the atmosphere (Caldwell & Hibbert, 1999). However, the study of Herrington and Capella (1996) has argued that music volume cannot effect on consumer behaviour, but that is an only small part group to think music volume cannot effect because conversely as Fern & Raman (2015) and Rosenbaum & Massiah (2011) have show that low volume and slow tempo will make the consumers spent more time to stay in the store and increase the purchasing rate, medium volume music and proper sound sources will increase desire and arousal of consumers. Age of consumers also is a reasonable link with music, young consumers will spend more time in shopping with no lyrics music (Yalch & Spangenberg, 2000). Most of the sales and advertisements are using music to promote because it can evoke memories, experience and mindset (Hussain & Ali, 2015). Some stores have create their own music, it can provide the consumer early to remember their brand. Apart from that, lighting is considered as an incentive that highlights products, it as one of the visual cues, it will let the customers remember the image of the store and products (Areni & Kim, 1994). Lighting is important in-store design because the consumer is attracted to light as them attention towards the products. Consumers can get the different effect from the lighting divided among four ways, they are compatibility, illuminance levels, colour temperatures and voltage. In the case study from Hopkinson, Petherbridge and Longmore (1966), it has argued to show that when the illuminance level control at low, the comfort level will increase. When consumers shopping at the store, they easily focus on brighter lighting use to illuminate particular products, it same like highlight the best product in store (Summers & Hebert, 2001).There have three different types of lighting, namely ambient lighting, accent lighting and task lighting, they have the different effect in marketing strategies. Accent lighting can found in the brand store like Nike, Rolex, Audi and a lot. It uses to highlight the display rack to make customers take attention to the product. It can boost up the possibility of consumers to purchase the products. Namely ambient lighting can found in a restaurant because the places with windows and natural light tend to reduce boredom and provide interest for consumers in stores, the soft lighting can reduce customer stimulation and spent more time for walking in the stores (Dennis, 2010). However, according to Custer (2010) lighting may increase the time for consumers used because they want to spend the time to look clearly the product to check the quality before purchase. Colour temperature generally is used herein in connection with the white light, it can be reddish or bluish. The colour temperature can affect the customer emotion and mood. Lower colour temperatures will use more red component or a warmer feel, in this colour temperatures consumer will feel relax and enjoy because it looks like a natural (Dowling & McCormick, 2003). If it uses more significant blue component, it will make the consumer feel the cooler feel (Dowling & McCormick, 2003). Different colour temperatures will make consumers have the different feeling like 3000k colour temperatures in warm soft white it will create calm warm mood if that is 3500k colour temperatures at cool bright white consumers will feeling the atmosphere is friendly. Different stores have different lighting design to choose, retailers must know that what type of business is running and choose the right lighting to catch the heart of consumers. Moreover, the big concerns for everyone store retailers the layout. Juel-Jacobsen (2015) argues retail design is important because according to the layout, it will affect the purchasing atmosphere and buying behaviour (Lewison, 1994). According to by Mirabi and Samiey (2015), store layout can be a design of floor space allocation to arrange the placement of items, it will make consumers feel the store is clean and easy to get the thing they want. A well-designed can affect the consumer behaviour, it will create a good atmosphere and experience for customers (Wakefield & Blodgett, 1994). A retail store sells a lot of products, the layout must be larger spaces because it can make customer get a positive emotion and decrease the crowding problem. Well-designed store layout is easy to enable consumers to purchase the product if they want. Consumer feels that easy to shopping and purchases the product, it also means that return rate is high, they will become a loyal customer. Retail store layout has based on aisle design and shelf design. Aisle design is important in layout, in the mind most retailers will think the shelves is important than aisle design because space is expensive can put more products on shelves. Juel-Jacobsen (2015) states that a well-designed aisle structure must be the design of consumer way should not start on product or shelves. Shelf design is the second main issue for the store design. A good shelf design that not only increase the sales, it also can affect the consumer satisfied (Fancher, 1991). A father gets off work and buys the milk for his son but the next shelves are selling beer, the father will buy both products, it is a simple theory for increasing the sales. The retailers can increase their sales by improving the position of the product and space allocation at the time. Besides, the space function also provides customers with a first image, if the layout is bad or small space customer will not come to store again. A large space will let consumer feel freedom and search more product (Cockrill, Goode & Emberson, 2008). Besides, when the customer enters a retail store there is a fragrance or special aromatic smell, it will make customers pleasurable fragrance and stimulate customer mood and emotions influencing to affect the time spent in the stores. According to Hussain (2014), the smell satisfactorily of customers is high, the purchasing rate also high. The smell can rise to emotions from the past memories, it will create a chance for the customer to enter the store (Soars, 2009). Scent can be identified in two ways that are a smell of the product and smell of ambient scent. Product scent can be like perfume and food scent compare with ambient scent is easy to get it than the latter. The ambient scent is difficult to smell, but maybe it can get in a bookstore. The ambient scent is a smell hard to describe but it can be smell who are familiar with. In the case study of Soars (2009) has found that in a fashion retail store use the “feminine scents” will increase the sales. According to Ward, Davies & Kooijman (2007) scent tend to influence consumers curiously motivation, it can spend a long time in the store or purchase the products. The type of scent matters according to gender and age, it is following the person of the customer (Rosenbaum & Massiah, 2011). Scent can create a lot atmosphere in different ways, it can help retailers to attract more consumers to come to retail stores and purchasing. Color can be used to influence both consumer emotion and perception within the retail stores, because it can incentive to build feelings among consumers and influence their attitudes. According to Babolhavaeji, Vakilian and Slambolchi (2015), there have around 62% to 92% consumers the first image is base on colour, so it will use to be the main marketing tool. It has more than 92.6% of consumer behaviour put more importance towards colour when purchasing the products (Babolhavaeji, Vakilian and Slambolchi 2015). If the colour of packing fails, the products will lose the marketing (Ricks, 1983). Bellizzi and Hite (1992) have argued the warm colour can more effective to consumer compare with the cool colour. Warm colour can give consumer strong image like red, yellow and orange compare with cool colour (blue, green and purple). Warm colour can make people feel happy and friendly compared to cool colour it makes people relax and calm (Bellizzi & Hite, 1992). If the retail store chooses colourfully is fault choice because it is effective to highlight the main point. One of the company good in colour marketing tool that is McDonald, because it uses two mains warm colour to affect consumer that is yellow and red. It easy to make consumer attention and feel warm. Most of the retail store wants to attract the consumers, they would like to choose warm colour compare with the cool colour, if the first image fails to attract the consumer it will lose the market. Last but not least, the signs, symbols and artefacts are also important to retail store. The three physical signs create awareness and provide cognitive guidance for consumers in the location, sometimes the place is bigger consumer not sure where is the product location, it can tell the message to consumers (Turley & Milliman, 2000). No matter indoor or outdoor, signage can be the labels for identification (Bitner, 1992). The signage can show that retailers take care of the consumer to increase their good opinion to the retail store. When the retail stores doing a sales promotion, the signage can create a good purchasing atmosphere (Woodside and Waddle, 1975), it also can provide the details of the products to increase the sales (McKinnon, Kelly & Robison, 1981). Signs and symbols can provide comfortability for consumers in searching the products in the retail stores (Chen & Hsieh, 2011). Signs is a marketing tool to be a silencer partner to help retailers provide a lot of information and messages to consumers. When the consumer sees the signs to know the retail stores is doing sales promotion, it will increase the sales because in the psychological people is like the mood and emotion, in their mind will think about purchase the thing with cheaper price. In the conclusion, the retail stores have a deep relationship with SOR model. Build a retail store need to do the store design and how the atmosphere can affect the consumers. The music choice is following what type business is the retail store going to run, the fast tempo is for pub if not they should choose the slow tempo and low volume music. Lighting is apart important to the retail store because it can highlight the main theme of the retail store and create an atmosphere to make customers enjoy. The layout is the second important of the retail store because when people enter the store if space is crowding or put central in shelves to list out the product will make consumer remain negative in their mind. Scent can remind the memory of the consumer or effect them increase the sales. Choose a right colour is important because if the colour is wrong, the strategic is fail it may waste a lot of money to rebuild because most people only take attention on bright and warm colour. Signs can provide customer care to consumers to increase their good opinion. Retail stores want to run in long-term should not only think themselves, need to put consumer be the central, if only do what the retail stores want, it will lose customers and get defeat in the market. SOR model is a marketing tool can help the retail store to analysis and do the market strategic.

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