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My passion for nano-scale innovative devices has been the dominant force propelling my
university life. Realizing the indispensable synergy between solid-state physics and nano-scale
materials in device research, I delved into the interdisciplinary world of physics, materials, and
devices. Since my sophomore year, I have been deeply engaged in several research projects
involving nonlinear optical physics, perovskite-based optoelectronic devices, and the ferroelectric
graphene device at Xi’an Jiaotong University (XJTU), Hong Kong University of Science and
Technology (HKUST), and UIUC. My work has been highly beneficial and productive and I have
been able to contribute to journal and conference papers. These experiences encouraged my
continued passion to step further into this field and motivated my pursuit of a Ph.D.
My research enthusiasm originated from a similar passion for gaining the knowledge. During my
study in the Department of Electronic Science and Technology at XJTU, I achieved great success
in classroom. I achieve high marks in all my course on math, physics, circuits, and device and
ranked first in my department. My performance at XJTU allowed me to participate in an exchange
program at HKUST, where I broadened my knowledge to include photonics. From the four
advanced courses that I took at HKUST, I received a GPA of 4.13/4.3 and was placed on the
Dean’s list.
As an Electronic Engineering major, I challenged myself to conduct a research project in physics.
In Prof. Yanpeng Zhang’s group, I studied nonlinear optics, specifically the problem regarding
parametric amplification of Rydberg multi-wave mixing. The parametric amplification that can be
used in quantum metrology has attracted considerable interest, but has never been investigated in a
Rydberg system before. To begin with, I comprehensively studied the dressed perturbation theory
and theoretically illustrated the principle behind the parametrically amplified MWM process.
While analyzing the experimental data, I found that the resonant position of the MWM signal
slightly moved with the change of the atomic density or the power of Rydberg driving field.
Driven by curiosity, I looked into it and successfully explained this deviation with a model based
on the Rydberg excitation. My work has significantly improved the previous understanding which
only considers the intensity suppression in the case of Rydberg excitation. From this work, I
submitted a first-authored paper to Phys. Rev. A, which is currently under the second revision.
After gaining confidence in the research of physics, I proceeded to engage with device research
and began with fabrication and characterization. During my exchange semester at HKUST, I
joined Prof. Zhiyong Fan’s group to investigate perovskite-based solar cells and LEDs. I
fabricated perovskite organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells using evaporation and sputter, and
characterized their optoelectronic properties. Moreover, I leveraged my strong physics background
to understand the device behavior and optimized the fabrication process. The extraction efficiency
of perovskite LED is a critical limit factor for the external quantum efficiency of the perovskite
LED. To solve this problem, I calculated the impact of the photonic crystal structure on the
extraction efficiency. Specifically, I drew the dispersion relation in the first Brillouin Zone of the
nanostructure lattice. My analysis explained the light emitting pattern and extraction efficiency in
our fabricated devices, and contributed to the fabrication optimization. Finally, the optimized LED demonstrated a high extraction efficiency of 78.4%, which is significantly larger than previously
reported works. A manuscript is in preparation to summarize this work.
Fascinated with the novel devices based on 2D materials, I joined Prof. Wenjuan Zhu’s group at
UIUC as a research assistant this summer, and studied novel devices combining ferroelectric
materials with 2D materials. HfO2 based materials is promising for ferroelectric dielectric
application due to their CMOS-compatibility and scalability for modern IC technology. In this
research, I first developed a program to perform systematic characterization for the ferroelectric
materials, and I have optimized the testing method to minimize the error caused by the
measurement. Then, I participated in the fabrication of the ferroelectric capacitors and dual-gate
graphene ferroelectric FET (GFeFET), with focus on optimizing the atomic layer deposition and
thermal annealing process. Furthermore, I characterized the capacitors, focusing on parameters
related to non-volatile memory, such as remnant polarization, endurance, and retention. I also
characterized the GFeFET, focusing on its function to achieve a comparison of the top gate
voltage and the polarization in the ferroelectric layer added by the back gate voltage. In the
fabrication and characterization process, I found the optimal conditions for the ferroelectric layer
with high remnant polarization and low leaky current. My work on ferroelectric testing has been
contributed to a co-authored abstract submitted to APS March Meeting 2018. Currently, I am
preparing a journal manuscript to report my work.
My research projects honed my skills in solid-state physics, low-dimensional materials and novel
nanoscale devices. I also formulated strong expertise in modeling, simulation, fabrication and
characterization. Looking forward, I am highly interested in the broad research area of nano-scale
devices, for the applications ranging from energy harvesting, biomedical systems, and quantum
information. Yale University is an ideal place for me to step further in this area. I would like to
elaborate my research interests as follows:
(a) First, 2D materials and related devices. 2D materials, like graphene, TMDC, and BP have
attracted increasing research attention, and the heterostructures based on multiple 2D
materials are promising to construct novel devices. However, there still remains many
challenges for devices based on 2D materials, such as how to achieve the theoretical transport
properties and how to realize high-yield and large-area manufacturing. In this area, the
research in Prof. Fengnian Xia’s group intrigue me greatly.
(b) Second, micro- and nanostructures and devices. The behaviors of the electrons and photons in
the nanoscale structures have attracted great interest recently and novel devices based on them
have been investigated deeply. However, there are still plenty of work still needed to be done
to promote the related applications in the industry. In this area, I am greatly interested in Prof.
Jung Han’s research on III-nitride materials and devices, and Prof. Hong Tang’s research on

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