Monitoring and Continuous Improvement: Learning activities should be dynamic and changing and should provide the richest learning experience. There should be provision for feedback and structure of the experience be sufficiently flexible to make changes in response to the feedback suggested. Monitoring and continuous improvement signify the formative evaluation tools.
Orientation and Training: Both the learner and the learning facilitator must know the background information of each other and about the context and environment in which the experience will operate for the full value of experience to be accessible. Constant structured development opportunities should also be included to increase the learner’s appreciation of the context and skill requirements of her/his work.
Reflection: Reflection transforms simple experience to a learning experience. Reflective process is fundamental to all phases of experiential learning. It is also a necessary tool for adjusting the experience and measuring outcomes.
Authenticity: The experience must be meaningful and useful in reference to an applied setting or situation. It must have real world context.
Preparedness and Planning: Participants must have adequate foundation to support a successful experience. They must focus on the intension and plan for it. It should be flexible enough to make adaptation
Intension. Intention denotes the purpose which is deeper than goals, objectives and activities that define the experiences which enables experience to become knowledge.
The National Society for Experiential Education (2013) principles include:
Both experience and learning are fundamental. There is mutual responsibility between learner and facilitator of learning. Therefore the facilitator is expected to take the lead in ensuring both the quality of learning experiences and the work produced.
According to Cantor, to begin with the experiential learning strategy, the instructor must identify the learner’s needs and requirements. Instructor must understand the cultural environment of the learner, their maturity level, learning difficulties and strengths and the weakness of the learner. Then to meet the cognitive development needs of the individual learner appropriate course content and activities need to be planned. While integrating experiential learning all the potential issues must be identified and necessary changes must be done.
Experiential learning can be broadly categorised into 2 types. Classroom-based learning and field-based experiences. Experiential learning in classroom includes wide range active learning strategies to bring out the excellence among students. Classroom-based experiential learning includes role-playing, games, case studies, simulations, presentations, and various types of group work. Field-based learning is considered as one of the oldest and most established form of experiential learning that includes internships, practicums, cooperative education, and service learning. In an experiential classroom an instructor’s role is quite different from that of traditional classrooms. Here the instructor pass much of the responsibility on to the student .The instructor role is significant because instructor is a guide, facilitator leader, resource person and provides necessary support to carry out experiential learning in and outside the classroom. Students take control of their own learning and gain knowledge.
Experiential Learning has been discussed and described as process of learning and method of instruction. Experiential education is an alternative and or an enrichment to instruction. Hence as a method of education it facilities active multisensory involvement of one’s student in some aspect of the course content. This immersion in the material becomes the basis for analyses and reflection on the part of the student-and hence the learning. (Cantor, 1995).