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Modern
technology and convenient lifestyle we had nowadays comes from the innovation from
a research. Research is comes from old French word cerchier which means or
to search. Research seeks answers in orderly and systematic way as a method of
problem solving. One of the essentials tools in research is informed consent.

Informed
consent is a formed signed by a participant as voluntary agreement to participate
in research. The main purpose is to provide private and to protect
confidentiality of a volunteer in a study. The ethical and principle of
informed consent is autonomy, beneficence and justice. Informed consent is a
must in human subject research as mentioned in the law and ethical conduct
especially The Belmont Report and the Nuremberg Code,. Therefore, some elements
should be included in an informed consent. The component should include for all
human subject research such as policies, benefit, participant care, stopping criteria
and feedback.

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A
good informed consent also provide information to the subject about his rights
towards the study, the purpose and objective of the study, the procedures, and explanation
regarding benefits of participation if available. Unintentional impact to
participant should be mention as well as the risks. Subjects he had fully control
on to participate or to withdraw. Statement regarding the private and
confidentiality, stopping criteria from the study at any time without any
penalty should be clearly state. Details for person to contact for answers
regarding any question related to research or study should be clearly mentioned.

There is some issues related to informed consent on
human research subject. The biggest problem is language barriers. As we know, Informed
consent is required before someone volunteer to take part in a research. It
should use direct words and wtitten in a simple language. The purpose is to
ensure it is easily understood and not mistaken during the interpretation
process or when translated by the potential participant. More than just an
agreement, it is actually content useful information in which someone has to
understand the process of the research and the risks that he will facing later.
It was assumed that all participant are
understand the content once it was signed but misunderstanding still can occur
because of inadequate information. Most of the subject or participant signing the
informed consent without being aware or had low level of understanding what it
is all about. Poor translation is one of the factor. So, informed consent should
provide in more than one language depends on sample target.

Vulnerable groups include the person who is
absolutely or relatively incapable of protecting their needs. As the example are
prisoners, juvenile, pregnant mother, geriatric or disable people .To obtain
informed consent is difficult from them. They may be creating many problem
because their misunderstanding regarding their role in the research and the
whole process of the research. Hence, special approach must to be taken to
communicate properly with them and make sure that the message is delivered clearly
as main strategy.

Another
common issues is religious influence. A
participant’s decision making sometimes influenced by their religious belief.
Hence, not all subject willing to taking part in research voluntarily. Informed consent is important tool in research
and no any research activity will be carried out until it is complete.
Another issues related to human subjects is false expectations and false perceptions. Although explanation and
information was clearly provide and given, most of participant-to-be fear of being just experiment tools or had
rumors known to them regarding the misconduct or failure of the study.Research
is usually done using human beings with feelings and experiences. Method of
data in some studies also touched confidential, emotional, rights, personal things,
and the truth of the subjects. Respondents have secret or confidential
information, which cannot be known by others. When disclosed or announced will
have a negative impact on certain parties, researchers need to know the ethics
of research before planning and conducting research.Ethics
is derived from the Greek word meaning “ethos” which means the common
sense that is commonly matched by systematic studies of the concept of ‘good’,
‘bad’, ‘right’ and ‘wrong’. Ethical issues are the dilemmas and conflicts that
may arise on a ‘suitable’ method for conducting research. Ethics determine what
can be done by a researcher and things cannot be done by the researchers.Based
on ethics in research, a researcher must:a)    Research
Participant Protectionb)    Confidentiality
of Research Participant Informationc)    Power
Options for Engagement in Research / Issue Coerciond)    Initial
Explanation About Research / Informed Consente)    Avoiding
Deceptive Practices a)   Research
Participant ProtectionDuring
research, participating participants should be protected against any negative
effects that may be either physically or mentally. Allow sufficient time for
the respondent to answer questions and not ask questions that embarrass, or
cause emotional turmoil unpleasant experiences. Hence, the researcher must
fully inform the subject of any possible occurrence during the research.                              b)   Confidentiality
of Research Participant InformationAny
participant’s information should be protected from the general public
information unless the participants have given written consent that allows the
researcher to disclose such information to the public. For example, in survey
surveys, respondents’ names need not be stated. Researchers should never
disclose information about the sample of the study until it can interfere with
the safety or dignity of the respondents. Personal rights must be protected and
cannot be known c)   Power
Options for Engagement in Research / IssueParticipant has the right to be involved
in or not in research, without compulsion. Although elected, the participant is
entitled to withdraw from involvement in the research at any time, with or
without any reason. d)   Initial
Explanation About Research / Informed ConsentAn
initial explanation should be given to the participants about the research they
will participate in so they can choose whether to engage or not in the
research. One of the measures to ensure ethics in research is through the use
of an informed consent form. The form must be read and signed by the
participant or guardian/parent (if it involves a child). e)   Avoiding
deceptive practicesResearchers must clearly
disclose the data and findings, explaining the procedure of the investigation
and publishing status with honesty. Researchers absolutely cannot falsify data
or attempt to deceive colleagues or involved agencies and the general public
about them. It is unethical if a researcher only refers to and reports the
literature that is in agreement with the problem and avoids any other study.
For example, if a researcher enters financial aid for his study it is likely
that it will exaggerate the importance of his research and wilfully does not
refer to a study that does not support his request. (Gay & Diehl, 1992:96;
Forcese & Richer, 1973:5) 

Good research
features include scientific and ethical perspectives. Issues become more
pronounced in social research where the subject is a human who has feelings,
intellect and is influenced by social and religious values. Research such as
weapons is neutral but human beings determine whether it is used to advance
society or destroy it.

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