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Marketing exists today as a
recent occurrence that began earlier in the twentieth century. This essay, will
differentiate the practice of marketing from its study. It is important to note
that there are several methods of studying marketing, however, it was suggested
that “marketing has not less that twelve school of thoughts” (Sheth et al. 1988,
citied Stone and Desmond, 2007 p. 2), and as far as these approaches adds to
the drive of marketing knowledge, it has potentials of confusing the readers,
who expects it to be a combined subject, and however, they may conclude that
marketers are being conflicting when they begin to present the various methods
to the subject (Stone and Desmond, 2007 p. 2). This essay will discuss a brief
history of marketing, definition of marketing from different perspectives, the
marketing mix popularly known as 4Ps which is an example of the classical
perspective of marketing will be discussed as well as its flaws based on
different perspectives such as relationship, customers’ perspectives. Since the
view of marketing that gained prominence in the 1970s and 1980s is currently
under questions for its for its flaws, the new marketing limelight which has
moved across a range of marketing sector during the past few decades, will be
examined and how marketing professional can use this to secure a voice in an

 “According to American academics, the study of
marketing first began in the US in the late nineteenth century” (Stone and
Desmond, 2007 p. 2), in telling the history of marketing, key texts in the
marketing field often refer to Robert Keith’s influential paper, in the journal
of marketing (1960), He diluted the history of marketing into three phases,
which are; the production era, Sales era and Marketing era. In the “production era” (1860-1920) can be
said to be the era of the field of business philosophy of “if you build it,
they will come”, it was of the believe that if the company builds or develops a
particular product, the customers will come for it. It focused on what the
company or firm should produce and not what the customers actually want. In the
early U.S economy, most companies focused on the production of as much goods as
possible. production era is therefore named because the main 

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