Kazakhstan_Jonathan_260118Name: Kazakhstan Leader: Nursultan NazarbayevGovernment form: Presidential RepublicPopulation: 17.8 millionMonarchy: None but did formally have KhansReligion: MuslimA Brief History During the first and eighth century mongols invaded kazakhstan and settled there. Arabs then came in 1219 and introduced Islam to the nation. The from 1219 to 1224 the mongols who were unified under Genghis Khan claimed Kazakhstan and Central Asia. then in the late 15th century the Kazakhs became a more defined ethnic group. Then in the early 17th century Kazakhs separated into 3 zhuzes or hordes these were the elder, middle and lesser hordes the hordes were led by similar to the mongol, Khans. The Khans in 1731 joined Tsarist Russia to protect themselves from invasions by the Mongols. In 1822-68 Kazakhs begin uprising but Russia is able to keep control and then disposed of the Khans of the 3 zhuzes. In 1868-1916 Many Russians and Ukrainians begin to settle in Kazakhstan and industry took form. In 1916 a major Kazakh rebellion is repressed and over 150,000 people are killed and over 300,000 more fleeing the country. In 1917 in light of the October Revolution civil wars break out in Kazakhstan. In 1920 Kazakhstan became a republic of the Soviet Union and is named the Kyrgyz Autonomous Republic. In the late 1920s and 1930s a campaign to enhance industrialization and to collectivise agriculture is formed as a results millions of Kazakhs die. In 1936 Kazakhstan becomes a Union Republic of the Soviet Union. In the 1940s Hundreds of thousands of koreans, Crimean Tatars and germans are moved to Kazakhstan. The first nuclear test in Kazakhstan is carried out in Semipalatinsk nuclear testing ground. In 1961 the first manned launch into space was done at the Baikonur launch station in Kazakhstan Baikonur is the largest launch station in the world. In 1991 Kazakhstan gains Independence. 1992 Kazakhstan joins the United Nations.View of World IssuesTerrorismKazakhstan or a least their president belive that current international and regional security systems “do not meet dynamics of the pace of developments or offer enough sustainable solutions to old and new issues”. Kazakhstan does not blame religion as the cause of terrorism but rather political repression, poverty, low level of education and health is what fuels terrorism and extremism.MilitaryKazakhstan believes that an increase in military spending not only undermines peace and security but also believes that increased military spending is a distraction of human resources and needs.MigrationKazakhstan president believes that people should keep in mind a few factsDeveloped Countries have a low population while developing countries have a very high populationPeople move elsewhere because of war and poverty this leads to social tensions, crimes and unemploymentInflux in refugees especially in countries like Lebanon, Turkey and Jordan costs these nation 1.3 to 3 percent of their GDPKazakhstan’s president believes to solve the issue of migration. That intercountry collaboration is needed to properly fight the growing issue of migration.Foreign RelationsKazakhstan has many allies but prominent ones are:ChinaKazakhstan signed a few boudry contracts with china in 1994 and 1998 it also commissioned an oil pipeline to ChinaIsraelThe president of Kazakhstan visited Israel in 1995 and 2000. Israel remarked that “Kazakhstan can show the beautiful face of Islam Contemporary, ever-developing Kazakhstan is a perfect example of both economic development and interethnic accord that should be followed by more Muslim states”. Bilateria trade amounted to $720 million in 2005. In 2008 Kazakhstan and Israel joined in joint military developments which included Self-Propelled-Grenades and Multiple Launch Rocket Systems.France President Nazarbayev has visited France 10 times since its independence. President Nicolas Sarkozy visits Kazakhstan in 2009. Kazakhstan and France have implemented 11 technology projects focused on aerospace. President Francois Hollande visits Kazakhstan in 2014. RussiaKazakhstan and Russia generally have very strong ties and have especially high military and economic relations this is the highest former soviet territory-Russia relation second only to Russia and Belarus. Russian businessmen are also heavily invested in Kazakhstan’s economy.Kazakhstan View on the EnvironmentKazakhstan suffered from much damage during the soviet reign up to 70% of all soviet nuclear tests were done in Kazakhstan and the people were severely affected and example of this in Semipalatinsk (now Semey) were 500 nuclear explosions were carried out. As a result of this 1 in 3 children born in the Semipalatinsk area was mental or physical harmed. Over a million of Kazakhstan’s population was exposed to high levels of radiation. Groups who put an end to nuclear testing in 1991 later helped the residents of affected areas and telling them to avoid nuclear areas. Kazakhstan put a stop to nuclear testing.Another issue Kazakhstan suffers from is the Aral sea issue which is the sea between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan the sea due to soviet attempt to increase cotton yield this lead to the sea shrinking to half its size and because of this mass desertification has happened also many health issues arose including respiratory illnesses and parasitic diseases. There have been efforts to halt the shrinking of the aral sea but the damage is already done and is irreversible Kazakhstan faces issues involving urban pollution from copper and zinc smelters it also suffers from waste for uranium plants.EconomyKazakhstan contains a variety of resources including fuel, metals and natural gases.. Kazakhstan produces many items including, being the leading producer in uranium as it accounts for 33% percent of the world’s uranium as it doesn’t have any nuclear power plants to use the uranium themselves. Also being the 3rd largest maker of chromium producing 16%. It’s the 4th largest producer of titanium, cadmium and magnesium. Kazakhstan also produces a whopping 4 million barrels per day and is predicted to be able to produce even more and is even possible to become the 7th largest energy producer in the world.