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Katie JeongMs. DonoghueEnglish 9 Honors2/5/2018  Odysseus and Penelope Hook: Life is filled with unexpected twists and turns. In the “Odyssey”, Odysseus and Penelope’s strong virtues enabled them to survive through life’s hardships. Penelope waited for her husband, Odysseus while Odysseus fought against mythic surroundings. Thesis: Although Odysseus and Penelope are both intelligent, they differ indetermination and loyalty, which reflects Ancient Greek values. Assertion: Odysseus and Penelope are similar in intelligence, which reflects the Greek values of Metis.OdysseusEvidence #1: ‘Kyklops, you ask my honorable name? … My name is Nohbdy’ (4.394-397). 155~156Analysis: Odysseus tells Kyklops his disguised name, “Nohbdy” because Odysseus wants to hide his real identity. Odysseus’ answer expresses his distrust towards Kyklops. Witty and intelligent Odysseus replies dishonestly to Kyklops to escape the Kyklops’ cave which reflects the Greek values of Metis, the cunning goddess. No average person can think of a witted response as Odysseus, therefore, Odysseus’ quick and clever response shows Odysseus’ intelligent abilities.  Evidence #2: {Odysseus} “the night here by the river … I … being weak and sick … The air comes cold from the rivers before dawn. But if I climb the slope and fall asleep in the dark forest’s undergrowth-supposing cold and fatigue will go … I fear I make the wild beasts easy prey” (5.491-498) 94.Analysis: Although Odysseus is tired and despaired, Odysseus has the strength to weigh his options of resting near the river or near the bushes. Usually, a person can not think during suffering times, however, Odysseus’ logical thinking during his suffering time shows that Odysseus can withstand hard times longer than an average person. Odysseus quickly thinking where he must sleep displays the Greek values of cunning Metis because quick-thinking and cunniness both require intelligence. Odysseus’ intelligent thinking during difficult times emphasizes how determined he is to come back home. PenelopeEvidence #1: “Here is an instance of her trickery: she had a great loom standing in the hall and the fine warp of some vast fabric on it; we were attendings her, and she said to us: ‘Young men, my suitors, now my lord is dead, let me finish my weaving before I marry, or else my thread will have been spun in vain. It is a shroud I weave for Lord Laertes, when cold death comes to lay him on his bier. The country wives would hold me in dishonor if he, with all his fortune, lay unshrouded.’ … So every day she wove on the great loom?but every night by torchlight she unwove it; and so for three years she deceived the Akhaians” (2.100-114)Analysis: Penelope’s quick thinking skills helped her survive her treacherous fate. Penelope demonstrates the Greek values of Metis by using her cunningness to trick the suitors for twenty years. Intelligent Penelope weaves Laertes’ shroud and unravels the shroud at night to deceive the suitors. Before Penelope is forced to marry, Penelope explains to the suitors that weaving a shroud to Lord Laertes was a her womanly duty, and after finishing weaving the shroud. Intelligent Penelope easily convinces the suitors because in the ancient times, weaving was viewed as a custom for women. On the other hand, Penelope used the traditional weaving custom as an advantage to protect her husband’s kingship. Penelope reflects the Greek values of Metis because Penelope’s shroud idea keeps the suitors from marrying her for three years.Evidence #2: “Suitors … You found no justification for yourselves?none except your lust to marry me. … We now declare a contest for that prize. Here is my lord Odysseus’ hunting bow. Bend and string it if you can. Who sends an arrow through iron axe-helve sockets, twelve in in line? I join my life with his” (21.72-81). 393Analysis: Penelope’s quickly thinks of ways to prevent suitors from winning her hand. Similar to cunning Odysseus, Penelope uses her cunning skills to devise plans to hold off the suitors as long as possible until Odysseus regains the kingdom’s power. For instance, Penelope explains that the suitor who strings Odysseus’ hunting bow, shooting an arrow through a twelve axe-helve sockets, will marry her. Penelope comes up with this task because she knows that Odysseus is the only person who can accomplish this challenge. Penelope’s idea of the bow challenge shows her strong love for Odysseus because the bow challenge symbolizes Odysseus’ strength while her idea shows her resistance of marrying the suitors. Penelope’s idea of the bow contest reflects the Greek values of Metis because the bow contest emphasizes that she is a cunning woman who uses her quick thinking skills to protect Odysseus’ king dignity. Penelope tricking the suitors for twenty years proves that there is no other women as intelligent as her. Transition: Although Penelope and Odysseus are both intelligent, they have different characteristics that makes them unique. Assertion: Odysseus is determined and treacherous, which emphasizes fame.DeterminationEvidence #1: {Calypso} ” “Odysseus, after these years with me, you still desire your old home? … before you go?all the adversity you face at sea?you would stay here, and guard this house, and be immortal.” To this the strategist Odysseus answered: “each day I long for home, long for the sight of home. If any god has marked me out again for shipwreck, my tough heart can undergo it” ” (5.212-218). 87 Analysis: Odysseus’ witty response to Kalypso, an immortal being, shows that his determination to come home. Usually, a mortal may feel scared to reply that he or she wants to depart for home to a mythical being. Mythical beings are powerful than mortals and different to mortals, therefore, mythical beings’ reaction is unpredictable to mortals which may easily frightened them. Since Odysseus can react quickly and effectively than a standard mortal, Odysseus smoothly convinces Kalypso his decision for returning to home. Odysseus’ quick-thinking response to Kalypso and staying with Kalypso emphasizes the acts of excellence meriting honor because during Odysseus’ time, immortal beings were well known and were thought higher than mortals, therefore, when Kalypso calmly reacted to Odysseus’ clever response, mortals will be astonished while Odysseus living with Kalypso will easily make his fame. Although Odysseus lives with Kalypso, Odysseus misses his home. Odysseus’ homesickness feeling is the factor that enables him to overcome obstacles during his journey to home. Odysseus knows that Kalypso will give him immortality and luxury, but Odysseus decides to undergo mortal sufferings because he is determined to earn back his king dignity and determined to live with his family. Kalypso’s offerings to Odysseus is tempting, but strong minded Odysseus returns home because he belongs there. Odysseus overcoming several barriers for 20 years to reach his homeland emphasizes fame because no mortal can withstand difficulties for 20 years as Odysseus. Evidence #2: “You yellow dogs, you thought I’d never make it home from the land of Troy. You took my house to plunder, twisted my maids to serve your beds. You dared bid for my wife while I was still alive. Your last hour has come. You die in blood” (22.37-43). 410Analysis: Odysseus won fame through his determination to survive. His main concern is slaughtering the suitors to defend his family and his power. Odysseus determination abilities is proven when he finally returns to his land after 20 years. Although Odysseus has struggled during his 20 year journey, Odysseus is still determined to fight for his king dignity. From Odysseus’ successful accomplishments throughout his journey, Odysseus is determined that he will be able to kill the suitors and regain his kingship. Since Odysseus faced problems far dangerous and life threatening than his problem of suitors, Odysseus is determined that killing all the suitors is an achievable task. Odysseus’ determination emphasizes fame because determined Odysseus has killed the suitors for power. TreacherousEvidence #1: “they retired, this pair, to the inner cave to revel and rest softly” (5.235-236) 87Analysis: Odysseus won fame from his scandal of Kalypso. Odysseus shows that he is a treacherous person to his wife, Penelope, by having an affair with Kalypso. Odysseus living with Calypso emphasizes that he is can not control from engaging in love relationships. Odysseus may feel this way because during his journey, Odysseus has undergone distress, misery and loneliness, therefore, Odysseus wants to feel loved. Usually, a mortal will have a relationship with another mortal, but since Odysseus is having a relationship with an immortal, all mortals will be astonished. Odysseus’ actions prove that his feelings is more important than his wife which proves his egotism. Odysseus’ treacherous personality helped reach his fame because Odysseus had a relationship with Calypso, a beautiful immortal.Evidence #2: “went through the dark to Kirke’s flawless bed” (5.530) 179Analysis: Odysseus won his fame from his scandal of Kirke. Odysseus scandal shows that he is an treacherous person to his wife, Penelope. During Odysseus journey, Odysseus has undergone starvation and lack of resources, therefore, Odysseus lives with Kirke because Kirke provides him the resources to survive. On the other hand, Odysseus living with Kirke shows he is untrustable to wife. Odysseus’ actions prove that his survival is more important than his wife. Odysseus’ life with Kirke has helped reach his fame because usually mortals live with mortals, but Odysseus, a mortal, is living with Kirke, a goddess. Odysseus’ treacherous personality emphasizes his fame because although he is married to Penelope, Odysseus lives with Kirke. Transition: Although Odysseus is determined, Odysseus treacherous personality to his wife may upset his wife who is very loyal to him. Assertion: ___Penelope___ is ___skeptical___ and __loyal___, which emphasizes __fame ___. SkepticalEvidence #1: ” “Odysseus is here! … he has killed your suitors” … Penelope said: “Dear nurse… the gods have touched you. … Some god has killed the suitors … But the true person of Odysseus? He lost his home, he died far from Akhaia” (23.8-75) 429-431Analysis: After Penelope dealt with the suitors who wanted her hand in marriage, Penelope thought that someone was Evidence #2:  “Penelope replied: “I think that I shall say, friend, give me some proof, if it is really true that you were host in that place to my husband with his brave men, as you declare. Come, tell me the quality of his clothing, how he looked, and some particular of his company” (19.266-261) 360Analysis: LoyaltyEvidence #1:  “Penelope replied: “I think that I shall say, friend, give me some proof, if it is really true that you were host in that place to my husband with his brave men, as you declare. Come, tell me the quality of his clothing, how he looked, and some particular of his company” (19.266-261) 360Analysis: Although Penelope has waited for Odysseus for 20 years, Penelope continues to be loyal to Odysseus. Penelope waits and mourns for her husband’s arrival, but Penelope tries to find out about her lost husband. Penelope displays loyalty to Odysseus by questioning a beggar to find news from Odysseus. Penelope shows her loyalty to her husband when she tests the beggar if he truly knows her husband, and the beggar responds by describing his clothes, personality, and facial appearance. Penelope’s intelligence and her loyalty to her husband proves that she is the ideal wife to any men. Penelope’s loyalty displays her fame because Penelope seeking news for her husband shows that she recognition of being the ideal wife. Evidence #2: “Strange men, if man you are … I know so well how you?how he?appeared boarding the ship for Troy. But all the same… Make up his bed for him, Eurykleia. Place it outside the bedchamber my lord built with his own hands. Pile the big bed with fleeces, rugs, and sheets of purest linen” (23.197-205) 434Analysis: Usually, when a wife meets her husband, the wife will be pleased, however, Penelope is cautious about her husband. By testing her husband if he is truly Odysseus, this proves that Penelope is so loyal to her husband that she fears that she might betray him in anyway. Penelope tests her husband by telling Eurykleia, a servent, to move Odysseus’ bed, but Odysseus explains that moving the bed is impossible because the bed is a tree that has roots growing beneath their house, therefore, he shows his real identity. Penelope gives this challenge to Odysseus because Odysseus and Penelope only know how the bed was made. The bed symbolizes Penelope’s loyalty to Odysseus because the bed is immoveable which means that Penelope will always love Odysseus. Penelope displays fame because Penelope uses her wits to prove if Odysseus is truly her husband which fames her as the ideal wife. Transition:

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