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K S Sudeep
Kumar1and C R Rajashekhar2

1Department of
Mechanical Engg., BGSIT, BG Nagar – 571448, Karnataka, India, [email protected]

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2Department of
Mechanical Engg., MITE Moodabidri– 574225, Karnataka, India, [email protected]

Abstract. Bio-diesel is a
sustainable, renewable and alternate fuel for CI Engines. The use of bio-diesel
produces various durability issues on key components of CI engines. For
durability studies, the aspects considered are injector coking, carbon
deposition on piston, lubricity of engine oil, wear and tear of piston and
cylinder walls and corrosion of engine parts they come in contact with fuel. In
this work, reports about the durability aspects, published by highly rated
journals in scientific indexes, have been cited. From these reports, the effect
of bio-diesel on engine durability are surveyed and analysed. The use of bio-diesel
leads to injector coking, increased carbon deposition on piston, decreased
viscosity of the lubricating oil and fuel dilution, reduced engine wear and
increased corrosion.

1.   
Introduction:

            The depletion of fossil fuel has
made to look for alternative fuels. Among alternative fuels, biodiesel is more
convenient to use for IC engines as it does not require any major engine
modification. Its contribution towards global warming is lesser than that of
diesel. Theemission of unburned hydrocarbon (HC) andcarbon monoxide are less in
case of biodiesel because of complete combustion. But NOx emissions are more
because of higher combustion temperature. The power produced is less due to the
loss of heating value of biodiesel as compared to diesel.

Durability
is the ability of an entity to perform until limiting value is reached under
conditions of use and maintenance. The various aspects considered in studying
the durability of engine are injector coking, carbon deposits on piston and
cylinder head, wear and tear of engine components, corrosion of engine parts
that come in contact with biodiesel.

     Biodiesel causes injector coking as it
deposits more carbon on injector tip and injector nozzle. The deterioration of
lubricating oil of biodiesel fuelled engine more compared to diesel fuelled
engine. The wear of engine components is more in biodiesel. The amount of
carbon deposition on piston and cylinder head is also more in biodiesel fuelled
engine. Very less research has been done on durability of engine as it is more
time consuming. This paper reviews the works already made in the above aspects
for biodiesel fuelled engines.

 

2.   
Durability
Aspects

            The following durability aspects
are discussed in this section

2.1. Injector coking
and Fuel filter clogging:

            A.M. Liaquat et al.1 studied
effect of J20 (20% biodiesel blend) Jatropha biodiesel on injector nozzle
deposit when engine was run for 250 hours. It was observed that injector
running with J20 is dirtier than that of diesel fuelled engine. Dry deposits
were observed on the injector nozzle when the engine was running with J20 whereas
oily/greasy deposits were observed on injector nozzle in the engine which was
running with diesel. On and around the injector tip dark deposits were
observed. These deposits nearly cover injector nozzle. Large carbon deposits
were observed in the dark areas.

            K
A Sorate et al. 2 reported about fuel filter clogging when the engine was
made run for 250 hours using Jatropha biodiesel. Since biodiesel has
spectacular solvent property that allows impurities and carries away through
fuel system causes fuel filter clogging. About 40% weight increase was observed
with biodiesel filter compared to diesel fuelled engine.L.G. Schumacher et al.
3 documented effects of low level blended biodiesel on fuel filter. The fuel
injection pump does not perform well compared to diesel fuelled engine after a
long duration test.

2.2. Degradation of
Lubricating Oil:

            K Nantha Gopal et al. 4 made
comparative study on lubricating oil which was drawn from engine which was run
by diesel and biodiesel (Pongamia Methyl Ester) (B20) for 256 hours each.
Lubricating properties like kinematic viscosity, density, total base number,
moisture content, pentane and benzene insolubleof lubricant drawn from diesel
and bio-diesel fuelled engine were compared. Kinematic viscosity and flash
point of lubricating oil are highly reduced, in the oil which was drawn from
bio-diesel fuelled engine that indicates the degradation of lubricating oil as
it is used. Due to bio-diesel fuel dilution in to the lubricating oil, it shows
higher corrosiveness and poor oil film strength. The density and ash content of
bio-diesel operated engine’s lubricating oil is high compared to diesel
operated engine’s lubricating oil because of contamination, wear debris and ash
content. Total Base number of PME fuelled engine is reduced more than that of
diesel fuelled engine suggesting higher depletion of anticorrosion additives
and contamination of lubricating oil. Higher Pentane and Benzene insoluble in
PME 20 fuelled engine is the reason for higher wear of the moving parts and
depletion of lubricating oil.

Avinash
Kumar Agarwal et al. 5 studied the effect of Karanja bio-diesel on life of
lubricating oil. They have reported that lubricating oil degradation rate was
very high in biodiesel fuelled engine, which causes higher wear of bearings. LeventYuksek et al. 6studied the effect of
Diesel and RME (Rapeseed Methyl Ester) on performance of lubricating oil by
running the engine for 150 hours. Lubricating oil of RME fuelled engine aged
faster than the diesel fuelled engine, also TBN and viscosity values are
decreased by 29% and 60% respectively in bio-diesel fuelled engine when
compared to diesel fuelled engine. K A
Sorate et al. 2conducted test on engine for 512 hours for plane diesel and
B100 biodiesel. It has been reported that the biodiesel has better lubricity
than diesel. Long term endurance test causes higher biodiesel fuel dilution in
to the lubricating oil which reduces the viscosity and that causes higher wear. 

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