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It’s well known
that one of the most important classical authors is Shakespeare. As a matter of
fact, Shakespeare’s sonnet 116 appears in Pride
and Prejudice of Jane Austen. Shakespeare was an impressive author, who is
able to make us feel emotions anytime. Who doesn’t remember the tragedy of Hamlet? Hamlet is a family tragedy that is very similar to the tragedy of Antigone by Sophocles. Furthermore,
Shakespeare may have named Hamlet after
Hamnet, his son who died at an early age. After his death Shakespeare entered
in metaphysical terms that we can see in Hamlet:
“We know what we are, but not what we may be”; “Doubt thou the stars are fire;
doubt that the sun doth move; doubt truth to be a liar; but never doubt I love…”
¸ “time and death sleep side by side”.

This questions
about life and death are the consequence of an incipient Humanism. Since Colom
discovered the Americas in 1492, Occidental world opened its mind and started
to figure out that all knowledge can be questioned. European perspective changed
from a theocentrical vision to an androcentrical vision. New ideas were finding
their own ways to get to Renaissance. At the same time, Catholic church was starting
to feel the disappearance of the scholastic in universities, for the relevance of
the “studia humanitatis” in the intellectuals.

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Shakespeare’s
skepticism was a danger to the integrity of society, in order to avoid problems,
the author decided to include a moral code. When Queen Isabel went to the
theater, learnt that people with power could go down too if they became into tyrants.
Power and the ability of government were aspects very important that have
contributed to the large history of Britain monarchy. In contrast with other
countries like France that in 1789 with French Revolution finished with
monarchy, England continues with monarchy nowadays.

In conclusion,
Shakespeare focus himself on human nature to write. He was interested in
classics from ancient Greece and Roman Empire. Cicero was important to him in
order to have a good oratory that gave prestige to his writings. Sophistic philosophy
taught him the art of defending an idea. The cynics showed him how related
humans were with animals and how bestial human being can be. Animals kill for a
reason, but human beings kill because is part of their nature thought Leonardo
Da Vinci, when Caesar Borgia murdered one of the closest friends of Da Vinci in
Milan. And effectively, Shakespeare was aware of that, like Freud, Shakespeare
was sometimes afraid of humanity. People can save you or kill you.

This dichotomy made
Shakespeare wonder where were the limits between good and bad. It’s said that
Lucifer is a fallen angel, and once was God’s favorite. Personally, I think
that Shakespeare shared with Saint Thomas the hypothesis that evilness was only
the consequence of bad decisions and the freedom to choose our actions. We can
say that someone can’t be corrupted, a person can just think and consequently, act
in a wrong way.

  

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