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Diabetes is now a global phenomenon with
increasing trends due to various factors like increase in prevalence of
obesity, decrease in physical activity. The population suffering from diabetes
is increasing day by day due to the rapid population growth, urbanization and
change in dietary habits. This increase in trend has no exclusion in India. It
is predicted that India will have highest number of people suffering from
Diabetes by 2030.(1) Diabetes is recognized as group of
disorders due to effects of hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. Along with
increase in prevalence of diabetes the amount of complications with this global
disease is also increasing.(2) Hearing impairment is one of the most troublesome chronic health
condition, and it may lead to decreased communication followed by poor
psychosocial outcomes.(3) Diabetes due to its pathological
process leads to many microvascular complications. Sensorineural hearing loss
is one of such predicted complication of diabetes.(4)(5)(6)Many studies showed that pattern of hearing loss in diabetes as
moderately severe in magnitude, progressive in nature, and bilateral in
occurrence and may be irreversible.(7) The prevalence of hearing loss in diabetics in Indian population
has not been studied extensively.(8)(4) It is important to know the determinants of hearing loss among
diabetes ad it may negatively affect the quality of life. So this study was
undertaken to describe the pattern of hearing loss in T2DM patients and trends
in hearing loss with various aspects of diabetes.(7)

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To study the occurrence of
hearing loss among people suffering from type 2 diabetes.

To estimate the variation of
hearing loss according to glycemic control among type 2 diabetics.

To observe the levels of
hearing loss in accordance with duration of diabetes.


Study type:

Cross sectional study observing hearing
thresholds among type 2 diabetics.

Study design:

This is a clinic based study design. At first study participants
will be given an interview schedule to get preliminary information consisting
of demographic information, duration of diabetes and present glycemic control.
Then they will be subjected to clinical assessment by an E.N.T surgeon and
audiological evaluation using pure tone audiometry.

Study duration:

The study will be conducted during the
months of May and June of 2018.

Study population:

Patients’ already diagnosed and   undergoing treatment for Type 2 Diabetes in
tertiary care hospital

Sample size and selection criteria:

to the document state of hearing and ear care in SEAR countries by WHO
prevalence of hearing loss in India is estimated to be 6.3%.(9) Considering
this prevalence might be there for diabetics also, sample size is calculated
using the formula


n= sample size = 95, Z2=4{(1.96)2
rounded off}, p= prevalence of hearing loss (6.3%),

d= absolute error (5%)

The minimum sample size for the study is
estimated to be 100.

Exclusion Criteria:

the preliminary screening, individuals with any ear problems like secretions,
pain, tenderness and congenital abnormalities leading to hearing impairment will
be excluded from the study. Individuals who are exposed to loud noises will be
excluded from the study assuming they may end up having hearing problems.

Data collection procedures and instruments:

information about demographic information and diabetic history will be
collected using interview schedule. Evaluation of hearing abnormalities will be
done using Pure Tone Audiometry. In this audiological evaluation, both air-conduction and bone-conduction
testingwill be done with and without masking. Audiometric
equipments like audiometer, transducers, and headphones will be used. The
testing environment is a closed cubicle called as audiometry testing room.(10) From the audiometry, average
hearing threshold levels of each individual will be noted and categorized into groups, no hearing impairment 25dBor better, slight hearing impairment 26-40 dB,
moderate hearing impairment 41-60 dB , Severe hearing impairment 61-80 dB, profound
hearing impairment 81  dB or greater.(9)

Proposed intervention:

The main idea of this project is to find
type 2 diabetes as one of risk factor for adult onset hearing loss.

Quality control:

Quality of the process will be thoroughly
maintained. Recommended British standard audiometry steps will be strictly
followed.(10) Aseptic conditions will be maintained to ensure the procedure is
free of nosocomial infections.

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