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to the various properties of metal organic framework (MOFs) and a wide range of
researcher’s interest in MOFs, make them a very important class in every field
of life. The scientist interest in this field increase day by day because of
their potential applications as a catalyst , drug deliver, gas separation ,
hydrogen storage and capturing of carbon dioxide

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wide range of properties of MOFs has discovered because of their broad
properties. Its mechanical properties, optical properties, thermal properties,
porous crystalline structure and large surface area make them very useful in
scientific field.

the synthesis of useful MOFs, we need a ligand and metal ions. When metal ions
coordinated with the ligand, formation of one, two or three dimensional
structures occur. Ligand can be synthesis by various method, but the Schiff
bases ligand play a very significant role in the chemistry. These ligands can
form a stable metal complexes and these complexes have a good stability with
different oxidation state. Schiff base ligands are able to monitor the
performance of metals in a wide variety of useful catalytic transformation. So
the formation of the complexes by these ligand, extended the application in a
variety of range. 

Schiff base ligands and their complexes are used as a catalyst in
various organic reaction, as a reaction centers of metalloenzymes, as a luminescence
material and as a catalyst in asymmetric synthesis. Moreover these complex
compound also show biological properties such as antibiotics, anti-cancer,
antifungal and so on . 

Regardless of remarkable development in the area of MOFs has been
made but it remains an important task to build a different molecular structure
by using a different style and different materials. The ligands geometries show
a very great effect on the MOFs structure. Hence much struggle has been
dedicated to altering the structure and controlling the ideas for required
products by choosing different ligands

Different methods are used for the synthesis of Schiff base ligands
i.e. performance of condensation reaction between amine and aldehyde give the
Schiff base

I will prepare the ligand by using maleic anhydride. Different
compounds can react with maleic anhydride and form a different ligand.






Background Problem:

There are many methods for the storage and the separation of gases.
The examples for the separation and storage are hydrogen purification, oxygen
separation from the atmosphere and carbon dioxide recovery, this separation and
storage method are done by various technique such as temperature swing
adsorption and pressure swing adsorption. But these techniques have less porous
and corrosion issues. So new method develop that has more efficient than the
previous one, has a greater surface area, more efficient pores and used in
every field of science that is MOFs. For the preparation of MOFs, an efficient
ligand is required

Aims & Objectives:

 The aim and objective of this research work

Preparation of bicarboxylate ligand

Characterization of ligand by using FTIR

Literature Review:

Asymmetric Schiff base ligand and half unit Schiff base ligand synthesized
from the reaction of o-vanillin and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone.
These ligands can react with Zn2+ and formed three Zn2+ complexes
such as mononuclear Zn(L1)2 (1), Zn(L2) (H2O) (2) and the third complex is the trinuclear Zn3(L2)2(OAc)2
(3). The mononuclear complex 1 proved to be inactive because of its
saturated octahedral coordination around the center of Zn2+ while in
the other two complexes such that 2 and
3 the unsaturated four or five
coordinate environments around the center of Zn2+ ions and these
complexes also permit the monomer insertion. The copolymerization of
cyclohexene oxide and maleic anhydride can have occurred in which some of the
reaction produce perfectly alternating copolymers while all the copolymerization’s
afford poly(ester-co-ether) s. However, the lower concentration of catalyst and
co-catalyst, higher polymerization temperature and the reaction time is shorter
are very supportive to produce the alternative copolymers. More studied focused
on to expanding and increasing the scope of monomer with the Schiff base ligand
used as a catalyst, are in advancement.  

The chitosan can be modified by the condensation reaction between
deacetylated chitosan with the aldehyde, this reaction can occur in the
homogeneous phase. The Schiff base ligand formed by the condensation reaction
between the primary amine and the aldehyde. After that, the derivatives of
chitosan Schiff base are synthesized with substituted aldehydes such as
2-hydroxy benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy
benzaldehyde, become formed a ligand or a complexing agent. When the Schiff


ligand react with the ruthenium, the ruthenium (III) complexes are
obtained. These ruthenium (III) complexes have a good stability and excellent
biocompatibility. By using the thermo-gravimetric analysis, elemental analysis
and FT-IR spectroscopy, Schiff base ruthenium complexes can be
characterized.  These ruthenium complexes
also more efficient against the gram negative and gram-positive bacteria, this
property of complexes indicated by the antibacterial result. These complexes
give support to finding out the new antibacterial agent.

By using the different substituent of Cr(III) Schiff base complexes
as a catalyst, the maleic anhydride and cyclohexene copolymerization can be
effectively realized. Beside the polymeric chain growth and high catalytic
activity owe to the introduction of substituent para and ortho to the phenoxide
group. Farther more low concentration of the catalysts is helpful to designing
the alternating copolymers.

the asymmetric Schiff base ligand synthesis from the o-vanillin and
the other Schiff base ligand, half unit Schiff base can have produced from the
o-phenylenediamine and the o-phenylenediamine and thus Zn3(L2)2(OAc)2
trinuclear obtained. This trinuclear complex has an unsaturated four and five
coordination for the Zn2+ catalytic active center. This complex can
permit the monomer insertion for the copolymerization of maleic anhydride and
the cyclohexene oxide, this can occur in the presence of the co-catalyst such
as triphenylphosphine (TPP) and 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP).  The poly(ester-co-ether) copolymerization can
afford by all the bulk copolymerization. While the rest produced alternating
copolymers. DMAP is the more efficient co-catalyst than the TPP.

A four new complexes of Schiff base ligands have been formed such
as ZnL22, PdL12, NiL12
and NiL22 and one new Schiff base ligand also prepared,
HL2. These complexes and the ligand can be characterized by using
the UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and by elemental analysis. The
ligand and the two complexes (ZnL22, PdL12)
can also be characterized by applied the techniques of 13C and 1H
NMR spectroscopy. By using the X-ray diffraction single crystal technique, the
molecular structure of three complexes (ZnL22, PdL12,
NiL22) can be determined. These complexes have a
four coordinated metal centers by two imine nitrogen atoms and two phenolate
oxygen of two Schiff base ligands. The four coordinated metal centers
determined by the crystallographic data. The two complexes (PdL12,
NiL22) have a square planar geometry around center
metal and the ZnL22 is a tetrahedral distorted. At the
last, these new complexes were tested for the antimicrobial activity.

by using the simple condensation reaction process of
1,2-diaminopropane and 2-hydroxy-6-isopropyl-3-methylbenzaldehyde, a new Schiff
base H2L was prepared. The Schiff base complexes such as (MnL),
(CoL) and (NiL)2 were also synthesized. By using the elemental
analysis, cyclic voltammetry, SEM-EDX analysis and spectroscopic technique the
new Schiff base ligand and complexes were


characterized. Nickel complex and Schiff base ligand can also be
characterized by using X-ray diffraction single crystal technique. Nickel
complex exhibit dimeric form and it’s also exhibit square planar geometry
around nickel center. At the end, the prepared compounds were analyzed by their
antioxidant, antimicrobial and DNA cleavage properties.

  the cephalothin Schiff base ligand can be
derived from the condensation reaction of sulfadiazine with cephalothin
antibiotic. The metal (II) complexes such as Mn, Co, Zn, Ni were synthesized by
a cephalothin Schiff base. By using the techniques such as thermal and
elemental analysis, FT-IR, EPR, magnetic susceptibility and molar conductance
measurement and 1H NMR spectroscopy, the binuclear Cu(II) and
mononuclear complexes were characterized. In this the Schiff base cephalothin
can act as a dianion tridentate (NOO) agent. By using agar diffusion method,
biological applications of these complexes have been determined.


Schiff base ligands are simply synthesized by using a condensation
reaction between imines and aldehyde hence Schiff base ligands also considered
as privileged ligand. The axes and planes of the element and the stereogenic
center can presented by the synthetic design. These ligands have the capacity
to coordinate with various metals to form a complex and to steady them at many
oxidation state, so that’s why the Schiff base metal complexes are widely used
as a useful catalyst. In this article the guideline for the preparation of
complexes and use of Schiff base complexes as a catalyst are discuss.


Three oxido-vanadium complexes VO2(L)NH(Et)3, VO(L)(PrO) and VO(L)(BuO)
were synthesized by using the deprotonated form of tridentate Schiff base
ligand. The Schiff base ligand and the complexes have been characterized by
using the FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and electronic spectroscopy. By
using X-ray diffraction technique structures of free ligand and all the
complexes were determined. The ligand exhibits a zwitterionic form and it exist
in the solid state, these results shown by the spectroscopic and structural
data. On the other hand, all the complexes exhibit five coordinated centers by
the ONO donor set of the L2- ligand. At the last, the anticancer
activity of all the complexes have determined. The result showed all complexes
have higher anticancer activity.


A new Schiff base ligand
(bis-((E)-2-(4-ethylphenylimino)-1,2-diphenylethanone) has synthesized. This
ligand containing the four-coordination center (ONNO). The ligand can used
further for the formation of metal complexes. The Schiff base ligand and the
metal complexes have characterized by using various techniques such as
spectroscopic method, molar conductance, elemental analysis, thermal and
magnetic measurement. The mechanism of thermal decomposition was also studied
for metal complexes. The process of all the thermal decompositions were
finished with the production of metal oxides. At end the thermodynamic and
kinetic parameters studied.









Plan of Work/Methodology:

Phase I:

 Preparation of bicarboxylate ligand from anthranilic
acid and maleic anhydride.

Phase II:

Confirmatory Test:

Melting point

Solubility test

pH test

Phase III:

Characterization of bicarboxylate ligand
by using FTIR technique.














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