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IOMT (Internet of Medical Things) or healthcare IoT:

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(Internet of Medical Things) or healthcare IoT: There is many
applications in healthcare fall under the internet of things, from remotely
monitoring devices to smart sensors and integrated medical device. It’s
potential not just to keep patients safe and healthy, also to improve how
specialist deliver care as well. Healthcare IoT can also boost patient
involvement and satisfaction by grant patients to spend more time to
interactive with their doctors.

Some examples:

1- Medical tools and devices like wheelchairs, defibrillators,
obscurity or monitoring tools can be connecting with sensors and existing
easily with IoT.. A part from real time position services, there are IoT
devices that help in ecological monitoring as well (controling the lab
temperature, for example).

2- With the intervention of Internet of Things, physician can
forecast the oncoming of patients who are convalesce in the Post-Anesthesia
Care Unit (PACU).They can also observe the case of patients in real time.

3- Hand hygiene monitoring systems which gauge the degree of
cleanness in a healthcare worker.

Hospitals can provide good care to patients at affordable rates. IoT aims to
provide better patient journey by:

ï    Room lighting through personal control

ï    Communicate to family and friends through email services

ï    Immediate attention to patient needs

IoT Architecture and Structure:

For the
implementation of  IoT to be undertaken
successfully in the healthcare industry, devices need to be structured around
specific network architecture to ensure that every piece of technology is
introduced and maintained to a high standard, which should theoretically lead
to zero breakdowns in communication between the network and devices. Regarding
IoT structure, there are two main aspects, one is device management. Normally
falls under the remit of a member of the Security and IT team, who are
responsible of ensuring security protocols are followed during the introduction
process of new devices and maintained during their lifespan. The second aspect
is infrastructure management. Frequently overlapping with device management
processes, how effective they are implemented is depending on the speed in
which devices are connected. Owing to their computational limits reducing their
speed and memory, numerous IoT devices are modified, with a boosted connection
to the Cloud to increase their productivity.

Detailed overview of the Technology:

proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) in the healthcare market, which
comprises systems and software, medical devices, and services, has had a
significant impact on the overall healthcare sector and been immensely
beneficial in remote clinical monitoring, chronic disease management,
preventive care, assisted living, and personal fitness monitoring. Termed as a
true game-changer for the healthcare industry, the Internet of Things has
transformed the sector by lowering costs, improving efficiency, and bringing
the focus back to quality patient care.

physicians who need to recognize patients, collect samples, administer
medication and monitor genial signs to pharmacists that need an exact inventory
count, with the IoT, healthcare organizations can benefit from next level

I. Operational Efficiency

There are many challenges
that faced the industry of healthcare from mostly every aspect of operation. From
equipment management, inventory and time to patient tracking, the level of
accountability is high. A good example is medical stocks. Many hospitals stack
up some stocks to prevent “running out” during emergencies.

Implementing solutions such
as RFID and mobile scanners related to cloud computing can identify these
assets and provide real-time information to people and transactions that
require them to ensure that hospitals get what they need most where they need


II. Patient Care Enhancement

In order
to provide the high quality in care for patient, physician and staff the access
to the right equipment is needed at the right time. On the other hand, hospital
staff time is better to allocate in patient care rather than manual
documentation , and chase down the right supplies.

By mobile
devices, wearable technologies and inclusive electronic medical records stored
on this devices, physicians can spend less time doing needless testing or
asking  excessive questions, destructing
errors, and have more time to focus on the patient’s current problem.

With IoT
solutions, healthcare organizations can improve patient experiences and
outcomes by gain access to the information they need in real-time. In addition,
it is easier to integrate data from consumer devices by IoT to help
organizations merge more data and deliver better care as data taken from
patient fitness band into hospital systems.

III. Leadership and Innovation

In order
for health care organizations to move forward in the curve, rather than always
fighting to follow up, implementing solutions that highlight and analyze their
data enables them to find common patterns and predicting what will come. With
IoT and process techniques maturing at a rapid rate, the healthcare industry
benefits from this intelligence to improve performance and innovation. When it’s
said and done, by spending less time managing operations manually and tracking
resources, healthcare professionals can spend more time dedicated to taking
care of patients and building strategies that work to improve how they work.




Algorithms/protocols used:

algorithms are everywhere and far more important than ever in healthcare
technology. Algorithms used:

Transform: Enhancing our senses.

transform has become one of the most important algorithms of our time. It is a
mathematical technique to break down complex signals in essential components.
It allows technicians, for example, to know voltage fluctuations in a
microphone wire for a loud speaker. Because it reduces the signal to a short
list of numbers, it’s also used to compress audio and video files into portable
packages (MP3 and JPEG). Without that, there would be no medical imaging. MRIs
and ultrasound can transform raw data into images that enable doctors to see
within our bodies to diagnose and treat bleeding, broken bones, tears, tumors
and more.

diagnose and treat bleeds and broken bones, tears, tumors and more.

RSA: Algorithm for Encryption

This algorithm allows for safe transfer of digital data. It was
one of the first practical encryption algorithms. The function of this
algorithm is to secure the exchange of electronic health records and be secured
in file cabinets, by mail and fax.

MUMPS: Health Care’s Operating System

is a computer programming language made for the healthcare industry, which is
still used today by many hospitals and banks. It was one of the first languages
to enable computers to run multiple programs simultaneously. Today it empowers
the entire Clinical Records Management System Veterans Health and Epic
Administration, America’s largest e-health record software company.


Matching probability data: The best friend of a doctor-scientist

Probabilistic algorithms look at various bits of information in
medical records, and then arrange them according to their patient-related
abilities. Used to recover clinical data and assist in research. For example,
the probabilistic algorithm uses the Nayef Bayes workbook to update probability
estimates or provide additional evidence for the hypothesis of research. Is
associated with genetic sequencing that it allows biologists to better
understand the evolutionary relationships between species or populations to
trace evolutionary relationships within the main branches of the Darwin tree of




BLAST: Basic Local Alignment Search Tool

High-throughout chaining has announce in a new age of genetic
discovery, making it  conceivable to
tattily and quickly find mutations among the 3 billion base pairs of the human
genome. Though, the first step is identifying mutations . It falls to
biologists, assisted by computer algorithms, to make sense of the growing body
of data, to work out which genes and proteins confer  illness and how. Search tool is chief among
those algorithms . BLAST, is a search algorithm, achive this by analyzing gene
and comparing protein sequences to a library or database of sequences and
relevant scientific papers.BLAST Publications hold the 12th and 14th spots in a
list of the 100 top-cited science papers of all time, according to the journal,
Nature. BLAST is being exceed, though, by Clustal, a similar program for
aligning multiple sequences at once, according to Nature.


A study illustrated “neighbor-joining” algorithm, when genetic
sequencing paired , allows biologists to better understand the evolutionary
relationships among species or populations to trace the phylogenetic
relationships within major branches of the tree of life. Phylogenetic trees are
used in drug development to, for example, identify widely related, naturally
occurring chemical compounds suspected to have medicinal value. Phylogenetic
trees of pathogens help phylogenetic understand the adaptive evolution of
bacteria, viruses and parasites how they hits hosts, subvert immune systems and
resist treatment. No. 20 on Nature’s
list of top-cited science papers.

Google Search: Page Ranking

We do a lot of Internet searches every day using Google or
Yahoo. Whatever the search engine, it’s a complex algorithm known as “page
rank” that first, source the Internet for pages that have the key word you
ender and then rank them based on factors, such as their location or their
frequency of use. “Googling” answers our burning questions, or at least gives us
a start. But has it helped or hurt health care? It’s certainly democratized it
and put more information within easy reach of patients.







it works to provide the expected service.


Recently, the healthcare can be categorized in multiple ways based on the perspective of the technology,
functionality and the benefits. There is a trend happening with the convergence
of consumer devices and medical devices. 
Most recent smartphones are being launched with health sensors in the
accessories like wrist gear. This enables the Health, Which refers to the use
of mobile and wireless technologies in the practice of medicine and public
health monitoring. This reduces medical errors based on continual monitoring
practices. IoT applications in healthcare can be grouped in to following
categories based on the functionality.

ï    People and objects tracking.

ï    Identification and

ï    Collection and sensing data automatically

Health trends can be analyzed with respect to the application
areas in medical practice. Some of the applications areas are listed below Along
with the use of the concept of process techniques and their benefits.

Wireless patient monitoring: This application is for remote monitoring of patients’ vital
functions through the use of patient devices internally and externally. As
opposed to discrete interactions, the provision of healthcare is moving to a
model where information is being transmitted and shared between individuals and
caregivers in real time. This is especially relevant for chronic disease
management such as hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, asthma.

Mobile system access: This application is
based on the mobile technologies that enable remote / virtual access to
existing clinical systems (eHealth records, archiving images, communication
systems PACs, etc.). All the medical system can be automated with easy to use
mobile app interface. This application of technology in healthcare is referred
as e-Health. If the mobile is used as monitoring and delivery of healthcare,
the application area is termed as m-Health. Examples: Websites, portals, mobile

Medical devices: This application is used to capture and track compliance with
key care and disease management data. 
Mainly These fitness solutions are used to track patient activities and
smart diagnostic devices used for capturing the data from the sensors for
further analysis by physician. Google glass is also under research for possible
medical devices as this can used to perform assisted surgeries and recording,



applications in real-life :

•Medication Dispensing
Device by Philips: remind patients of their doses; good for elderly patients.

•Niox Mino by
Aerocrine: for routine measurements of Intric Oxide in a patient’s breath.

•UroSense by Future
Path Medical: for catheterized
patients to check their core body temperature and urine output.

•GPS SmartSole:
this is a shoe-tracking wearable device for dementia patients who have the
habit of forgetting things.

IoT Healthcare Security:

The IoT
is growing rapidly. In the coming years, the medical sector is expected to witness the widespread
adoption of the IoT and flourish through new eHealth IoT devices and
applications, they are expected to deal with vital private information such as
personal healthcare data. Moreover, such smart devices may be connected to
global information networks for their access anytime, anywhere. thus, the IoT
healthcare domain may be a target of attackers. To facilitate the full adoption
of the IoT in the healthcare domain, it is critical to identify and analyze
distinct features of IoT security and privacy, including security requirements,
vulnerabilities, threat models, and countermeasures, from the healthcare

requirements for IoT-based healthcare solutions are similar to those in standard
communications scenarios. Therefore, to achieve secure services, there is a
need to focus on the following security requirements.


ensures the inaccessibility of medical information for unauthorized users. In addition, confidential
messages resist revealing their content to eavesdroppers.


ensures that no adversary can alter the received medical data in transition.
Furthermore, the integrity of stored data and content should not be

3) Authentication

ensures the identity of the communicated peer in IoT health device.


ensures the survivability of IoT healthcare services (either local or
global/cloud services) to authorized parties when needed even under
denial-of-service attacks.

Data Freshness

freshness includes data freshness and key freshness. Because each IoT of
healthcare networks provides time-measuring techniques, there is a need to make
sure that each message is new. The freshness of the data essentially means that
each data set is up-to-date and ensures that no rebate replays in old messages.



indicates that the node can not refuse to send a previously sent message.

The strengths of IoT in healthcare:

1. Decreased Costs:
healthcare providers benefit from linking health care solutions, patients can
be monitored on a real-time basis, thereby significantly reducing unnecessary
visits by doctors. In particular, advanced home care facilities offer a
guarantee of reduced hospital stay and re-admission

2.Improved Outcomes of Treatment:
Connecting health care solutions through cloud computing or other virtual
infrastructure gives caregivers access to real-time information that enables
them to make informed decisions as well as provide evidence-based treatment.
This ensures timely health care delivery and improved treatment outcomes.

3.Improved Disease Management:
patients have been monitored on a continuous basis and health care providers
are able to access real-time data, diseases are treated before they get out of

4.Reduced Errors:
data collection, automated workflow combined with data-driven decisions are an
excellent way to minimize waste, reduce system costs and, most importantly,
reduce errors.

5.Enhanced Patient Experience:
the health care system through the Internet of things, puts the focus on the
needs of the patient. That is, proactive treatments, improved accuracy when it
comes to diagnosis, timely intervention by doctors and results of enhanced
treatment leads to responsible and highly reliable care among patients.






The weaknesses of IoT in healthcare:


IoT is transformative in the health care sector, it also presents a number of
challenges given that health data is sensitive. As such, when they share
inappropriately, health information may harm reputation or destroy careers
among other things.

security is another risk factor that is likely to increase as the level of data
being shared increases. The volume of data in increase significantly and thus
the need to protect this information from cyber-attacks.

What’s next for IoT technology in the health sector?

holds the potential power to revolutionize the healthcare industry, but not
before overcoming security barriers and proprietary of data.


¬ Remote presence
proves a major win for telemedicine – be it before or after a visit to the doctor’s
office or hospital. The biggest health technology advocates believe that
tele-health efficiency can significantly reduce the need for routine reviews
and tests. Patients will also be allowed out of hospitals and clinics earlier,
where professionals are enabled to monitor them from home instead of keeping
them in hospitals for surveillance.

¬ Ideally, objective
data that can be taken from a network of IoT objects will also significantly
reduce margins of error. In the predictive area, for example, it can be able to
detect the onset of a wide range of health issues, from high blood pressure to
early signs of delirium. Thus, in theory, emergency admissions can be reduced –
with proactive health systems to address problems before they become more
serious or irreversible.

¬ Some companies want
to make it possible to attend a full health appointment from the comfort of
your home, so health professionals from around the world can provide
consultation or even diagnosis hundreds of miles away.






discussed in this report, all the physical objects will work seamlessly with
machineto-machine and human-to-machine interfaces. This level of interconnection
is a boon for the healthcare, where health influencing factors both internal
& external to the human body can be analyzed based on the model. These
factors along with the genomic inputs shall make it possible to predict the
health trends and allergies of the person; thereby the technology can provide
customized recommendations on suitable physical activities, diets, etc. This
mobile doctor buddy apps are not meant to be the replacement for experience of
the doctors. They should work collaboratively with the doctor. In this approach
of complementing the doctor with the technology based inputs, the new trends in
IoT has the capability to transform the way the primary healthcare is delivered
to the patients.

healthcare institutions should enter into agreements with vendors that require
the connected devices to be updated with improved security over time and that
the updates are tested and verified before being put into use. Given the nature
of healthcare data and potential legal liability for resulting data breaches,
the “Internet of Things” at healthcare institutions and the contracts
that cover them need to constitute a “Security of Things.”





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