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bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic inflammatory conditions of immune
system  affecting the gastrointestinal
tract and colon.There is an eqilibrium between the interaction of the gut microbiota
and the immune cells present over there. They help us to fight against the
invading pathogens coming in contact with the 
human gut through the contaminated 
food and water. Sometimes this equilibrium is disturbed in due to
certain genetic or environmental factors, resulting into the pathologies
associated with the gut and colon. IBD is categorised  under two groups, Crohn’s disease (CD) and
ullcerative colitis (UC). Ulcerative colitis mainly affects rectum and colon
where as Crohn’s disease affects the whole gastrointestinal tract. The symptoms
include chronic abdominal pain, diarrhoea, ulcers in intestinal epithelial
lining, eroded mucosal layer and development of fistula in the rectum. Crohn’s
disease is more severe condition as compared to ulcerative colitis.  Blood sample analysis of the patients
suffering form the disease have  the
supported the role of certain miRNAs in disease development, these miRNAs can
be used biomarkers for the noninvasive diagnosis technique.  Recently over 100 miRNAs was detected from the
blood sample of IBD patients, expresssed differentially1
. This differential expression also varied between UC and CD patients  from the normal human individuals. These
miRNAs were miRNA-23a, miRNA-29a, miRNA-106a, miRNA-107, miRNA-191, miRNA-200c,
miRNA-362-3p and miRNA-532-3p found to be upregulated  in the blood from patients  suffering with CD  compared
the healthy individuals. MiRNA-21, miRNA-28-5p, miRNA-151, miRNA-155 and miRNA
188-5p were found to be upregulated  in
the blood from patients suffering with UC  compared 
to the healthy individuals2.
Few miRNAs were found to be upregulated  in both the conditions, they were miRNA-16 ,
miRNA-199a-5p, miRNA-126,miRNA-127-3p, miRNA-29a, miRNA-29b miRNA-19b and
miRNA-324-3p.1, 3, 4 Only a single downregulated
miRNA-505 was observed in the UC patients yet.

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