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In Notes from the
Underground, Dostoevsky presents us with a character representative of
Freud’s death drive since he is seen to exemplify perverse pleasures throughout
the novel regularly.  The underground man has
similar character traits as those of Freud and they share a standard death
drive in the broader sense.  The reason behind this is because as seen in
the notes from the underground, the underground man is seen having
perverse thoughts throughout the book perverting every idea that comes to his
mind. Similarly, this is the case with Freud.

From Freud’s pov and the
Notes from the Underground, it is safe to say that the principle of pleasure is
the ID main driving force as a mechanism for it to seek satisfaction of its
desires, wants, and needs. In other words, the policy of joy aims and objects
to fulfill our primitive and basic desires and calls, for example sexual
desires, compassion and anger. When these needs are not met, the result is a
state of anxiety or tension. What this means primarily is that the ID
which is the primary host of libido continually seeks to reveal itself through
different traits that will make an individual have the urge to attend to them
(Freud, 119).  As a result, they try to identify themselves differently
more specifically in evil ways than their natural form.  It is clear from
Freud’s pov that his death drives are Eros and Thanatos (Freud,
122).  This is so since he feels the constant need to die due to lack of
content in his life but on the other hand, Eros, which is more of a life drive,
keeps him going. Thanatos aims at creating a mind dynamic with a destructive
process while on the other hand, Eros gives him the constant sexual urge.

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Freud’s death drives are so much conflicting that they give him the call of the
principle of pleasure to survive. His death drive is similar to that of the
underground man as he also feels very egocentric about himself but continuously
very skeptical about his thoughts and actions that he secludes himself to the
underground and is overwhelmed by the principle of pleasure.

individual’s innate instincts are the ones that majorly contribute to the ID
which is governed by the principle of pleasure. A person’s passions and
desires contribute to the orientation of the ID, and therefore this means that
they mainly represent the identity of a person (Freud, 109). As can be seen,
Freud’s and the Underground man’s IDs are the development of sexual pleasure
psychologically. Their ID seeks to reveal themselves through perverse thoughts
that they consistently get in the conscious mind and when not attended to it is
seen that the two end up in tense situations. The principle of pain and
pleasure helps drive the behavior of an individual, but more so they also want
satisfaction. An individual possessing the belief of pain and pleasure just
like any other principles will have practice and characters that are in line
with the law. What this means essentially is that the person will have
character traits that show his pain and urge for pleasure. On the same account,
the principle of pain and pleasure seeks attendance to quench the thirst for
desire and at the same time aims to stop the pain being felt.

 Thanatos which is
the instinct of death and self-destruction has the desire that is natural for
one to reestablish the state of things in their life.  From the Ego and
the ID chapter on the interpretation of dreams, it is evident that Thanatos or
rather the instinct or drive of death is brought about by the existence of life
itself (Freud, 111).  Ego in this context continually brings back memories
of the past, and on the other hand, Id is subjected with superiority. The
ego is subjected to the events and realities of the external world while on the
different hand id is submitted to the internal world. Hence, due to the complex
conflict of the two identities; one gets the urge to reestablish his life to
merge the logic of ego and the passions of the id (Freud 117). The conflicting
characters as seen in the two sources are super egotistic, but they
continuously doubt their thoughts hence their introverted behavior. The two
different aspects result to them finding ways to self-destruct them from the
death instinct, Thanatos. Thanatos can be seen as the primary drive that makes
human resort to self-destruction behavior. Based on the Notes of the
Underground man and Freud’s pov, Freud’s death drive and all these aspects of
Ego, Thanatos and Id can be related to the underground man.

The underground man
thinks highly of himself and finds it hard to connect with other people as he
doesn’t see them with the same intelligence as his. From this, we can relate
the aspect of ego from Freud’s pov to this of the underground man. On the other
hand, the underground man has a constant skepticism that makes him doubt his
thoughts and as a result, the suspicion makes him withdraw from the people to
the underground. He continually feels unworthy and hates associating with
people for this reason.  Just like Freud, he shares the same sentiments with
the underground man, and this can be attributed to the death instinct. In
addition to this, Freud and the Underground man are seen to have perverse
thoughts throughout their pov’s.  This can be attributed to the
self-destructive ID that both possess. The trait determines their irrational
psychosexual behavior, and that continually needs to be satisfied.  From
the analysis of both the notes of the underground man and Freud’s pov, it is
clear that the underground man is Freud’s death drive representative in the
records of the underground and therefore Freud’s death drive can, thus, be
related to that of the underground man.

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