In “Comparative Literature Today”, Wellek (1965) claims that modern comparative literature was founded in 1954. He mentions that it is only through this approach that we can achieve an unlimited set of topics. According to Wellek (1965), texts are detached from their literary values; likewise, French and American schools are applied to draw comparison. The most important difference between these two schools within this theory lies in the matter of influence. This approach is concerned with comparing two or more different works, which belong to different backgrounds, including a great number of different dictionaries, bibliographies, guidebooks, novels, and poems (Wellek,1965,p.334).
In “What is ‘Comparative’ Literature?”, Brown (2013) argues that comparison is involved within a minority of criticism and through that it is interwoven in all thought, “the poet Matthew Arnold coined the term of Comparative Literature in a translation of Literature Comparée, and claimed that no single literature is adequately comprehended except in relation to other literature” (p. 70).
According to Culler, world literature courses that bring together the great books from around the world seem to base comparability on a notion of excellence (as cited in Brown, 2013, p. 11). Comparison is involved in opening new possibilities for cultural value, and when comparison is required, it will not be the comparison of excellence (the excellence of a work of literature being connected to its uniqueness), but will have reference to ‘specific intellectual norms or models – generic, thematic, historical’ ones (as cited in Brown, 2013, p. 72). Comparison in its sense has a set of qualities in the same literary work; any work of comparative literature cannot be understood until we process its performance (p. 80).
In “The Comparative Study of Literature”, Marsh (1896) stated that the term of ‘Comparative Literature’ is a loose term, difficult to obtain or encompass. Comparative method is in fact employed in many other fruitful developments as in natural sciences, comparative anatomy, comparative grammar, and in language (p. 163). The task of comparative literature in different conceptions is when it gives investigations and categorizations of diverse forms in which imaginative and literary reasons, motives, subjects, causes, and themes have been assumed in the literature of different populates. In addition, it studies the origins of these causes and the matter of their dispersion (p. 164).
In Introduction to Comparative Literature, Jost (1974) asserts that comparative literature has become both the subject of academic and critical framework. Sainte Beuve who used the concept ”historical comparative literature” introduced comparative literature for the first time (Jost, 1974, p. 9). Critics used the term comparative literature in Europe for the first time in 1845. They claim that literary works should be studied together despite different national origins because these works are related and belong to the same genres, themes and motifs (Jost, 1974, p. 10).
Francois Jost (1979) claims that “Literary works should be studied together, whatever their national origins, as soon as they are ideationally or factually related, as soon as they belong to the same current or period of time, the same aesthetic category or genre, or as soon as they illustrate the same themes or motifs” (p. 13). He also added that the research in comparative literature has these areas; relations and analogies; movements and trends; genres and forms, or themes and motifs (p. 24).