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Identification of security attacks is a stairway to successfully protect the IoT system. An IoT system consists of three different layers each with security limitations which increase the chance for security attacks. IoT requires security in all its three layers; at physical layer for data collection, at network layer for data transmission and an application layer to maintain CIA. In this section, some security approaches are mainly discussed.  {3+4}

1.     Physical Layer Security

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To keep the system, secure the first step is to ensure the secure booting of the system. Authentication and data integrity of a system must be verified using a cryptographic hash algorithm. In case of a new device, when it wants to communicate first time with other devices it should authenticate itself before sending and receiving data. To maintain the data integrity some error detection mechanism should be introduced for ensuring that data is not altered in a transferring way. Checksum, parity bit as well as a hash function can be used for this purpose. Finally, for the confidentiality data should be encrypted in each device before the communication. Due to the low power consumption, strong encryption algorithm like AES cannot be used instead of AES blowfish or RSA can be used as the consumed less power. 3

2.     Network Layer Security

To main the privacy of sensor nodes, we need to use proper authentication along point to point encryption. Another important thing we need to keep in mind is secure routing for data transfer. Though most of the application does not have secure route however the security of a route can be ensured by providing multiple paths for data routing. It will improve the possibility of detecting an error in the system. As mentioned earlier section for data integrity hash function can be used.  

3.     Application Layer Security

Data security is most critical in this layer. It difficult to provide an authentication and integrity mechanism in this layer which will ensure the privacy and protect data from tampering or theft. To maintain the privacy and protect the data encryption mechanism can be used here. Also setting up an Access Control List (ACL) is a very effective way to protect the data. By setting up an access control list we can define who can have access to the system. ACL can block or allow the incoming and outgoing traffic. However, it’s a very crucial job to set up an ACL. For the extra level of security firewall and antivirus can be used. A firewall can block the attack which cannot be blocked by authentication, encryption or ACL. It filters all the received packets and takes a decision which will pass, and which will drop. Also, it can prevent the system from unwanted login and DoS attack.  Security software such as antivirus, anti-spyware is also played an important role to provide the security, integrity, and confidentiality of the IoT system.   

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