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Hall argued some may accept, negotiate or reject the underlying images in the media. While Gramsci (1971) argues messages in the media are imposed from the ruling elites. Stuart Hall observed resistance that undermined the dominant media narratives.Hall argued that this is found on youth subcultures such as punks, emos, and Rastafarians that can provide a different reality that the mainstream one.Another example of ‘counter-hegemony’ is when The Blair government (1997-2001) led the UK to war in Iraq on the premise of weapons of mass destruction that Iraq apparently had which needed to be eradicated. The government declaring a war was supported by all the main media platforms, such as The Guardian and Daily Express.The media feel into the notion of hegemony without challenging any of their preconceptions. However, the public went against and demonstrated resistance. This led to the UK biggest march over 750,000 people marched the streets of London to voice their opposition against military action against Iraq (BBC, 2003). Although it didn’t stop the war from happening it proved that the dominant power structures cannot always encourage people to consent.Furthermore, the hegemony theory can be criticised because the media is diverse, with a wide range of available choices for consumers rather than the media influencing society’s consensus. The media may just simply reflect the consensus values and stereotypes held  by society. If particular representations is dominant in the media  this may be the popularity amongst the audience, not the powerful institutions that are imposing a particular ideology.The media try and please the audience and provide representations that meet audience expectations. For example, many companies encourage the audience to post a feedback online form to meet the needs of their target audience.Feminists are also concerned with how the Mass Media uses its ideological tool to misrepresent women in the media. According to feminism, the media are  instruments in presenting the patriarchal dominant ideology as the natural order. Similar to Marxism, Feminists also argue that we are in a state of ‘false consciousness’ because we believe that the division of labour and the different perceptions in roles are the true nature of reality and the media plays a role in exploiting our consciousness to believe this is true. This is evident in society today when we observe that those who control our society are male and in rare occasions female.For instance, Theresa May is the second female prime minster since Margaret Thatcher steeped down over 25 years ago.Advertising is a form of mass media that is an inescapable path of everyday life it is constantly featured in our surroundings even if we do not watch television or use the internet. Between the 1900 and 1960, advertising was a principle tool of consumerism and ‘mass deception’ (Ardono and Horkheimer, 1944). After WW2 advertising represented the countries desire to continue as normal. Therefore, it would encourage people to rebuild a family centred society by presenting a gender scripted role whilst imposing the patriarchal ideology. Adverts would encourage women to carry out the the emotionally expressive and nurturing role including household duties to appear as ‘busy working mothers’. While men were shown to be authoritative figures through breadwinning activities.Gunther (1993) studied the gender representation of women in television advertisements and found that failed to show women in paid work, but rather presented them carrying out the ‘expressive role’ (Parsons, 1951).Dormeyer (kitchen appliances) advert released in 1966 stated ” Wives are desperate for home appliances and will cry to get them”. This coveys how advertisements portrayed women as suffering from an obsessive cleaning habit and if the household duties were not done they would fall into an emotional state. The constant portrayal of women as housewives was also a consumer ideology to encourage husband to purchase the household appliances for their wives. On the other hand, Liberal feminists adopt the “march of progress” view of gender, and argue that there has been change the ideologies of women in the media, for example, “Sex and the city” shows women success and financial independence. Furthermore, according to The Guardian (2017) The Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) has toughened rules on adverts that seem to be sexist.Over the years, television has become one of the most popular forms of mass media. Television is a popular form of entertainment that can easily impose ideological persuasion. One of the reasons for this popularity is because of  British Television soap operas. Soap operas often present the gender dominant ideological messages which are absorbed into mainstream culture. Although soap operas feature a high percentage of women, it still remains a predominately male industry. What concerns feminists is the representation of femininity in television. Popular soap operas such as Hollyoaks and Eastenders often present the the female characters as seeking romance and feminist argue this romance leads to women being subservient to men. The media often sells this version of women life’s that lead to domestic drudgery due to the media construction patriarchy narratives on gender. Advertising is indeed ideological in some nature because it promotes and constructs the materialism and consumerism culture. As previously stated, we are constantly bombarded with adverts whether this may be the mail, transport, television, the internet and so on; adverts can be found anywhere. In Zizek ” Pervert’s Guide to ideology” (2015) video he sophisticatedly explains how the very notion of experience is ideological from analysing the narration of the film ‘They Live’ (1988). He argues that we are bombarded with adverts that puts us in an ideological mode as soon as we step out of this mode we will ultimately see the truth. Adverts are so embedded in we can easily look at a logo and identify the brand. Advertising is responsible for a materialistic society and feeding the consumers needs. It tells us that happiness, pleasure and satisfaction can be purchased making the consumers ‘a unit of consumption’. The consumption culture has been normalised when indeed it is a social construct perpetuated by the media. Zizek showed how ad agencies manipulate and mislead humans for economic interest. We are not informed on the truth behind the product and advertising denies the child labour, poor working condition, mass production etc. Despite the diverse range of advertising messages and symbols it still  prevents us from being market conscious.To conclude, from analysing various theoretical perspectives and applying it to modern day media forms and texts, the content of the mass media can be ideological in some nature. As my examples show there are various ideologies that can be applied to mass media. However, the issue of the media being ideological in some nature is debatable, independent films, documenters, journals and local newspaper may provide news that differ to the dominant values in the media. Despite that, they may fail to reach masses of people because of lack of funds. The debating topic of whether media is ideological is controversial because some may believe ideology does not exist when in reality we may simply be indoctrinated by the ‘smokescreen’ dominant ideology.

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