Garrett CutlerMr. Wallace AP American History, Section 1 23 January 2018Review Questions: Explain the justifications of the doctrine of manifest destiny, including material and idealistic motivations.The justifications of the doctrine of manifest destiny, included material and idealistic motivations. At the time of the conception of the manifest destiny it was believed that it was God’s intention for the united states of America to extend its landholding from “sea to shining sea”. These believes led many Americans to capture the land that was once owned by native American tribes in their quest for a new life out west. A huge motivating factor for this transition of landscapes was the possibility of striking gold that blossomed after gold was discovered in 1851. The motivations from the manifest destiny resemble the three G’s the textbook talked about earlier witches glory, God and gold.What economic forces promoted continental expansion in the 1830s and 1840s?The economic forces that promoted continental expansion in the 1830s and 1840s was gold, land and power. In California there was a recent discovery of gold and people flocked there in the pursuit of wealth. Another reason why there was a huge push for expansion during this period of time was that the United States wanted to keep the balance between slave states and abolitionist states even. Therefore whenever a slave state enter the union a free state must enter following its predecessor.Why did many Americans criticize the Mexican War? How did they see expansion as a threat to American liberties?There was great criticism in regards to the Mexican-American war since that some people feared that the Mexican-American war was only for the benefit of the government and trying to expand the number of slave states. After the Mexican-American war I hate people saw the expansion as a threat to American liberties since it had the potential to throw off the balance between slave and free states. This is this the compromise of 1850 was created. This compromise declared California as a free state while Utah and Oregon were slave states. How did the concept of “race” develop in the mid-19th century, and how did it enter into the manifest destiny debate?During the 19th century Race was a notion that involves not only their color but, also you class, culture, origin and religion. These notions came about from situations like United States becoming a part of the union and with this state came a lot of nonwhite Catholics who some people deemed to be unfit for any potential of citizenship. These concepts of race trickled down into the manifest destiny debate because many believed only whites should have the privilege of expansion in purchasing that land.Explain the factors behind the creation of the Republican Party.During the 19 century the Democratic Party face near annihilation after it’s party divided. This division resulted in a period of political chaos and it was out of this portable chaos that the Republican Party emerged. The factors contributing to the creation of this party was after the Kansas Nebraska act became law. When this law overthrew the Missouri compromise Democratic Party shattered its unity vanquishing. Out of the collapse of the Democratic Party. A period of particle instability overtook the country in which the wake party splits the South being mostly democratic and in the North the Whig party joined the Republican Party.What three questions did the Supreme Court address in the Dred Scott case? Assess the court’s arguments.Three questions emerged in the Supreme Court Dred Scott cass. The first question was could a black person be a citizen and therefore sue in federal court? The answer that the Supreme Court came up with was that a slave was property and therefore not a citizen. Since he was on a cytisine he could not sue in federal court. The second question was in regards to did residence in a free state make Scott free? The answer was no since he was property and property couldn’t be free unless it’s rightful owner freed them. The third and final question was did congress possess the power to prohibit slavery in a territory? This question sparked a lot of controversy especially since the Supreme Court said that Congress did not possess the power to bring Hibbett slavery in any given territory.Based on the Lincoln-Douglas debates, how did the views of both men differ on the expansion of slavery, equal rights, and the role of the national government?Based on the Lincoln- Douglas debates, both men differed significantly in regards to their views on the expansion of slavery, equal rights, and the role of the national government. Stephen Douglas believed that territories had the ability to exclude slavery if the people wanted to (Popular Sovereignty).Abraham Lincoln opposed the extension of slavery since he thought that slavery would soon become obsolete. What were the international implications of southern nationalism?The international implication of southern nationalism was that many white Southern wanted to expand their territory southward into areas such as Cuba. Although this was never followed through, by the late 1850s, many South aristocrats were using every tool available to strengthen an already weak slavery system. Explain how sectional voting pattern in the 1860 presidential election allow southern “fire-eaters” to justify secession.Sectional voting pattern in the 1860 presidential election allow southern “fire-eaters” to justify secession because the North had more electoral votes so it gave the abolitionists an unfair advantage. Also, the election of Abraham Lincoln threatened the Southern way of life. FREEDOM QUESTIONSHow did American argue that conquering Texas and other parts of Mexico was “extending the area of freedom”? Americans argued that conquering Texas and other parts of Mexico was extending the freedom. Since most Americans believed it was their God-given right and duty to conquer and make the land free (manifest destiny). Americans also thought that religious institutions like the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico stole the freedoms of people in order to make them be forced to abate to their bishops, priests and church hierarchy.Explain how both northerners and southerners believed winning the struggle over the expansion of slavery was the key to preserving their freedoms and to preventing their domination by other section of the nation. Both northerners and southerners believed winning the struggle over the expansion of slavery was the key to their freedom and domination. Southerners believed that the more states they possessed, the more power they would have in Congress. While the Northerners thought that if they had more states, they would have more chances of abolishing slavery. 3. According to the Republic Party, how was the “free labor” the key to preserving American freedoms, and the free society threatened by the Slave Power? Republicans believed that slavery threaten “free society” since slaves took jobs away from the white men because the white men could not compete with the white labor. Giving opportunity to these citizens would help bring more economic independence to the lower white class of society. 4. How did southern nationalists justify independence as “freedom” from northern “bondage”? Southern nationalists justifies independence as “freedom” from northern “bondage” because after the election of 1860, it became evident that the South would soon be bound to the North’s policy against slavery. The South saw independence from the North since they were now free to pursue the system of slavery without the fear of being stricken by the Northern abolitionists. FOCUS QUESTIONS What were the major factors contributing to the US territorial expansion in the 1840s?The U.S. territorial expansion in the 1840s started with Texan wanting to be annexed to the United States and due to growing anxiety that Britain would gain control over Texas. The United States brought one of the largest states into the Union. The second major contribution was the California gold rush in which thousands of immigrants flocked to the United States in pursuit of financial success. 2. Why did the expansion of slavery become the most divisive political issue in the 1840s and 1850s? Expansion of slavery became the most divisive political issue in the 1840s and 1850s because the North and the South had two very different agendas and approaches to the issue of owning slaves. The North believed that slavery should not spread to any more states while the South was determined to expand slavery or it would die. 3. What combination of issues and events fuelled the creation of the Republican Party in the 1850s? In the 1850s, the Whig party became divided after a period of political instability following growing division among the democratic party. The Southern Whig party joined sides with Democratic party while the Northerners joined the Republican party and this split came about after tensions rose in regards to slavery. 4. What enabled Lincoln to emerge as president from the divisive party politics of the 1850s? Lincoln was able to become president from the divisive party politics of the 1850s because after Douglas and Lincoln faced off for a Senate seat, Lincoln became a celebrity among people even though he lost the Illinois Senate seat. In addition to political chaos during this period of time, Lincoln was a great speaker and was able to unite the Northern states to choose him as President. 5. What were the final steps on the road to secession?The final steps on the road to secession was Southern states refusing to put Lincoln on a voting ballot. Such move enabled some Southern states to succeed after Lincoln won the election of 1860. Southern states believed that their interests and rights were not being recognized in the national government. Chapter 14 REVIEW QUESTIONSWhat made the American Civil War the first modern war?American Civil War was the first modern war because it was the first war to use modern technology. These technological advancements included automated firearms, better transportation, more evolved machinery and other byproducts of the industrial revolution. It was the first time railroads were used to transport soldiers.Explain how the North won the war by considering its material resources, military strategy, and effective political and military leadership.The North won the war by many factors such as its military strategy, material resources and strong leadership. The North had more manpower (22 million soldiers) than the South (9 million soldiers). The North also had greater infrastructure than the South making it easier to transport supplies and men to an army. Describe how President Lincoln’s war aims evolved between 1861 and 1863, changing from simply preserving the union to also ending slavery.At the beginning of President Lincoln’s war, his mission was to unify the Union but after pressure from the abolitionist, Lincoln waited for victory in which he announced that Confederation would surrender by the years end of 1862 or he would abolish slavery in the South. Since the South didn’t surrender until 1863, Lincoln was forced to put an end to slavery. How did the Emancipation Proclamation, northern military successes, and actions by the slaves themselves combine to finally end slavery?Once the war was over and the South surrendered to the Union, the Southern states back under Federal law enabling the Emancipation Proclamation to take effect in the South. With Southern army defeated, and the North army being strong, the South had to abide by freeing the slaves. What role did blacks play in both winning the Civil War and in defining the war’s consequences?The blacks were enlisted in the war and were fighting on the Union side. They helped tremendously to win the war for the Union but were still treated unfairly after the war ended because the South never wanted to give them freedom. Eventually, the black were given the same freedoms and slavery was ended as a result of Civil War. What major policies did the wartime Congress pass that transformed the nations economic and financial systems?The major policies that the wartime Congress passed that transformed the nation’s economic and financial systems were threw the system of Banks, bonds, tariffs and money. Congress established new banks these new banks required the not only government bonds but they use and purchase of banknotes for the purpose of repaying any debt. The raise Tariffs resulted in the improvement of the industrial economy. Plus these banks went about using a new financial system. The system in which there were two different types of light one was the greenbacks and the other was the banknotes.How was the American Civil War apart of a global trend toward more destructive and deadly wars?The American Civil War was a part of a global tendency towards more destructive and deadly wars. The American Civil War was at the front of this since it was arguably the first modern war. This came about because the American Civil War used modern machinery and technology. Through the defense mints such as spinning bullets which made guns more accurately and Transat helped reinforce the lines it made a higher death and destruction not only possible but easier.Compare the end of slavery in the United states to emancipation elsewhere in the world.The end of slavery in the United States was very different to the emancipation elsewhere in the world. The end of slavery in the United States came at a time that was much later than the emancipations that took place in most other slave owning countries. United States was also the only country at the time to have ever gone to war in regards to the institution of slavery.In what ways did the outcome of the Civil War change the United States’s status in the world?The outcome of the Civil War change the United States status in the world. After the union’s victory in the Civil War leaders like Ulysses S. Grant and Abraham Lincoln for praise for their participation in ending slavery. It took some time the newly united country once rebuilt could and did have the capability for the first time to be a rival of the European powers.FREEDOM QUESTIONS: How did Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address express the new connection between freedom, liberty and nation? Lincoln’s Gettysburg address expressed the new connection between freedom, liberty and nation by expressing the idea that the United States is not divided but rather a complete nation unified its federal government through heritage, culture and religion. Explain how both northern and southern soldiers soldiers could claim they were fighting for “freedom” and “liberty.” The Union was fighting for the freedom of slaves and saw the injustice in its institution. For them, freedom meant that all people are free, including slaves. The South was fighting for their personality liberty in owning slaves. For them, freedom did not belong to slaves. 3. Explain how both northern and southern governments restricted liberties during the war. How were such actions justified? Both northern and southern governments restricted liberties during the war because Lincoln consolidated executive power and twice suspended the writ of habeas corpus throughout the entire Union for those accused of “disloyal activities.” Actions like these can be semi-justified during a time of war since the government has to do what it has to do in order to claim victory against their opponent.4. Describe how the Civil War permanently altered the national definition of freedom and linked it to the survival of the nation. After the Civil War, freedom was now being applied to not only whites but it applied to slaves as well. Going forward, the North and the South had agree on what freedom is and the fact that slaves are not free as long as the institution of slavery exists. For United States to be united, the South had to give up it’s deifniton of freedom which did not include slaves. Focus Questions:Why is the Civil War considered the first modern war?The Civil War is considered to be the first to modern war because not only was it the first war to be photographed but it was the first war in which modern weaponry was used. The use of these pieces of modern warfare such as ironclads, primitive summer rains, grenades and rifles as well as the use of trains for transportation. Symbolizes the first in a long line of modern wars.How did a war to preserve the Union become a war to end slavery?A war to preserve the union became a war to end slavery. When the Second Confiscation Act of 1862 was passed. It made by law that Confederate states that succeeded from the union would be forced to free all their slaves when this came out in 1862 the war became much more than just preserving the union but ending slavery itself.How did the Civil War transform the national economy and create a stronger nation state?The Civil War transformed the national economy and created a stronger nation. By asserting the principle that an individual state did not possess the influence to the above federal law. From the destruction of South farms, factories and plantations it helped speed up the development of the current economy into a modern industrial society.How did the war effort and leadership problems affect the society and economy of the Confederacy?The war efforts and leadership problems affected the society and economy of the Confederation. The war efforts affected the society of the Confederation since Confederate leaders had the power to seize property provided that they issued government money. The war efforts also affected the economy due to the King cotton diplomacy in which the south do not export any cotton in hopes that it would help persuade England to back their war efforts against the north.What were the military and political turning points of the war?The military and political turning points of the war was another than the battle of Gettysburg. The battle of Gettysburg came about when Lee’s army came to the town to out of all things resupply themselves with shoes. Lee’s army suffered the greatest defeats in his career during the battle of Gettysburg and gave the north a tremendous victory.What were the most important wartime ‘rehearsals for Reconstruction’?The most important wartime rehearsal for reconstruction was to reestablish economic social and political stability in the south. For example outsiders went to teach former slaves on an island off the coast of North Carolina the ways of being free.Investors also question for when I land put up for sale northerners came and bought the land and gave former slaves an opportunity to work for a wage.