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Farmer PlattIntroductionMany processes involve neutralization. Some of the example include treating sewage and the digestion of food. Another of these processes is for treating soils that will be used to grow plants. This because of the factors for plants to thrive in certain environments, one of them is the pH level of the soil that is used. A pH level from 1-2 is considered strongly acidic, from 3-6 is weakly acidic, 7 is neutral, from 8-12 is weakly alkali, and from 13-14 is strongly alkali. Thus, the plant (onions) which has an optimum pH of 7, which is neutral cannot grow in its optimum growth when the soil pH is not right. Looking at this case where the soil that currently available has a pH 4.5, therefore we need a method must be introduced to raised this level.MethodsNeutralization is a reaction that occurs when a base (or alkali) is added to an acid and (vise versa) which results in no excess of hydrogen ions (a pH level of 7).For this, farmers and chemists sometimes use fertilizers and liming materials to lower or to raise the pH level of soil, respectively. For this case where the soil is acidic, a lime has to be added to the soil for it to be neutral. Lime is available in many different forms, mainly powder, pellets, and blocks, and are usually measure in tonnes per acre. After the lime is added, an indicator could be used to ascertain whether the soil is ready to be used for the plant.DiscussionThe amount and type of lime used depends on the soil texture and how much the pH level has to be risen by. The most common types of liming material, shell meal (CaCo3), limestone (CaCo3), hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2), burned lime (CaO), dolomite (CaCo3 – MgCo3), sugar beet lime (CaCo3), and calcium silicate (CaSiO3) all come in different forms and contain different equivalent amounts of CaCO3, ranging from 80-175%. The form of the lime dictates how easy it is to apply (i.e. finely ground lime is easier than natural shell deposits to measure, store, and keep consistent), while the amount CaCO3 determines by how much the pH level would be risen by. While not necessarily the most effective, limestone is the most consistent, as it is available grounded is exactly 100% CaCO3, so it is the most commonly used material. The soil texture also determines how much lime is needed, the general rule being the wetter/thicker/full of other substances a sample of soil is, the more lime is needed. A few safety measures have to be taken before handling liming materials. Under no circumstances should lime enter the body or come into contact with skin, so it is recommended that protective apparel such as gloves, goggles, and masks be worn,or we can use Hazmat Suit to fully protect our whole body, and that in the case that unprotected contact does happen, that the affected area shall be rinsed immediately and take medical attention be seeked immediately if it has any issues.There are four ways the pH level could be measured. The first is to use baking powder and vinegar, with the more bubbles produced the more acidic/alkali a sample of soil is. The second is to use red cabbage or a universal indicator strip. However, these methods are not exact, and for more precision, a pH probe and distilled water (to avoid impurities) must be used.ConclusionThe most accurate method to measure the pH level a pH probe with distilled water, to avoid any impurities tampering with the results, and to make sure the the quality of the soil is more consistent, limestone should be used, as it is available as a powder and is a 100% CaCO3.However, a sample of soil collected might be different from another sample collected from the same patch and due to time constraints and impracticality, the farmer cannot be a 100% certain that the soil is reliable for growing onions because we need to put consideration they might have applied different amount of lime throughout the patch.Keywords:7Acid: A molecule that donates hydrogen ions.Alkali: A basic, soluble salt.Indicator: Substances that change colour to show another substance’s pH.Neutral: A pH of 7.Neutralize: A reaction in which a base/alkali and acid cancel each other out.pH: The concentration of hydrogen ions in a substance/mixture.References1,  5https://nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/water/13C.pdf2 Neutralization – Uses Of Neutralization. (n.d.). Retrieved January 24, 2018, from http://science.jrank.org/pages/4627/Neutralization-Uses-neutralization.html3,  7, 8 Levesley, M., Brand, I., Saunders, N., Robilliard, S., & Ling, J. (2016). Edexcel GCSE (9-1) chemistry. London: Pearson.4 Levesley, M., & Kearsey, S. (2016). Edexcel GCSE (9-1) biology. London: Pearson Education.6 CALCIUM CARBONATE. (2014, July 01). Retrieved January 24, 2018, from https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsneng/neng1193.html

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