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Evaluations of the Urinary System, three urinary complains, signs, and symptoms are: Acute Pyelonephritis; High fever, vomiting, nausea, upper back, side, groin pain, urinary urgency, and shaking/ chills. Cystitis; pelvis pressure, lower abnormal discomfort, frequent and painful urination, blood stains in urine, dark cloudy urine. Glomerulonephritis; Urine dark/amber color, high blood pressure, fatigue, joint and muscle aches, fluid retention, swelling in face, hand, feet, and abdomen, diarrhea, and abdomen pain.


Three urinary common tests are: Cystoscopy, Cystoscopy is a procedure that  can be performed by a urologist that allows your physician to see inside the lower urinary tract. This includes the urethra, prostate, bladder neck, and the bladder. Cystoscopy procedure can be performed in a physician office under local anesthesia. Can also be done in outpatient procedure under sedation, or general anesthesia. Pt should know that undergoing a Cystoscopy procedure, they should inform the physician if they take any medication especially blood thinners.

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Urinalysis is a routine urine test, used to check abnormalities in urine. Urinalysis is a regular physical examination screen for early signs of disease also perform to detect UTI, Proteinuria, Hematuria, and pregnancy. This procedure is performed by doing a clean catch. Catching a clean catch, the surrounding of the opening to the urethra should be cleaned.  Blood test can be used to diagnosed and monitor a variety of urologic condition. This is also a routine procedure, which is tested for (BUN) blood urea nitrogen which is to evaluate the kidney functions. Creatinine test (Cr) which forms a substance found in the muscle tissue breaks down. Like urea nitrogen, the kidneys filter out creatinine and let it pass through urine. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) This test may be used in men to screen for prostate cancer. Calcium test which measures the level of calcium in the blood, can be used to screen patients for kidney disease. Phosphate (phosphorus) test which measure phosphate levels in the blood, are used to diagnose kidney problems and monitor dialysis. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) test. These tests are used to help diagnose testicular cancer, AFP and beta-hCG are substances that are produced in higher-than-normal amounts by testicular cancer cells. 

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