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Eugene KimEk7843Prof. BonevacPaper 5, Absolute Truths, due Monday, December 11: Are there truths that are absolute—that are not relative to a particular person, society, historical period, conceptual scheme, or interpretive community, but hold at all times, for everyone, everywhere? (a) Explain what relativism is, focus on one particular form of relativism (e.g., to a historical era, or to an interpretive community), and give an example of a truth that *is* relative in that way. (b) But are *all* truths relative in that way? Explain how at least two philosophers (from among Kant, Hegel, Nietzsche, and Peirce) would answer the question. (c) Answer the question yourself. If you think that all truths are relative in that way, explain why. If you don’t—if you think that some truths are absolute in that respect—give some examples, and explain why you consider them absolute.Relativism is a belief that there are no absolute truth but the truth that only a particular person or certain culture happen to believe in. Believing in relativism means that you believe different people can have different point of views about what is moral or immoral. Focusing in cultural relativism, is the idea  that an individual’s belief, values and practices should be understood given that person’s culture rather than to judge against a criteria of the other. In other words, the belief that morality is created collectively only by groups of people and morality at the whole is different from culture to culture. For example, many things in our daily lives such as food, language, rules and social norms are different within different cultures.  Cultural relativism is not judging a culture to what our culture’s standards of what is right or wrong, instead we should understand different cultures in its own cultural context. For example, instead of thinking, “eating grasshoppers are gross” we should instead think, “why do cultures such as china eat grasshoppers?”. You may learn that grasshoppers and many other insects are rich in protein and easy to farm. You have no right to judge or punish anybody in a relativistic society. What is right or wrong is defined by socialization. All over the world in different cultures, they evolve. Society evolves, changes and improves leading morality to become a target. Society has no standards if it’s based on relativism. Nietzsche doesn’t believe in any absolute truth, because he believes in historicism and therefore relative. He does not think that knowledge progresses rationally. He believes that we either progress, retreats, or detours from the absolute truth but we can never fully reach it. He denies the existence of god, absolute knowledge, and absolute truth. Although Hegel thought there was an absolute truth but come come later at the end of history. I believe that there is no absolute truth. What we know can never be confirmed to us of its morality and relativism. It just doesn’t make sense to me when I think outside of the box, in the grand scheme of things what we are sure of is what our system programmed out shelves to be. Since our environment and stepping stones that lead to what we know and believe to be right is based on what individuals like myself and everyone else has ended up with that mindset.

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