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Ethan Kreisel Period: 6Prompt: 2 Coming out of the World War, the United States and Soviet Union were feeling confident after their wins. The United States were capitalist, where almost everything was privately owned. Soviet Union, on the other hand, were communists where almost everything was publicly owned. Both of these powerhouses wanted to spread their culture and ideology. This ultimately led to the Cold War. The Cold War was not battles between the US and USSR, but rather a proxy war. Rather than battles being held in the respective countries, they were held elsewhere using other countries like puppets. During this time, the US had to get other countries to go along with them in the fight to contain communism. There were two different ways that the US could persuade other countries to go along with them, soft power and hard power. Although not always a success, soft and hard power are the . In order to stop the Soviets from spreading Communist beliefs to other countries, they needed to be contained. This originated from George Kennan. In 1946 and 1947, George wanted the US to contain the Soviets and apprehend the spread of communism. This was the first taste of hard power being used for foreign policies. Following this, NATO was founded in 1949. An attack on any NATO country is considered to be an attack on all NATO countries. This helped some of the smaller countries outside of the Soviets borders. In response to this, the Soviets created the Warsaw Pact of 1955. Similar to NATO, the countries belonging to the Warsaw Pact saw an attack on one country, is an attack on all countries. NATO was backed behind USA, whereas Warsaw was powered by USSR. The first major use of hard power was the Truman doctrine. On March of 1947 Harry Truman gave a speech regarding the fate of Greece and Turkey. Truman feared that if Greece and Turkey were left to their own accord, they would become Communism. This was the first policy of containment. The two nations were given 400 million dollars to aid their economy. A similar plan arose to aid European countries called the Marshall Plan. The Marshall plan was a soft power tactic used to contain the Soviets from western Europe. The US sent money to help rebuild the economy, rebuild currency, and to foster free trade. Conservative Americans were not so fond of the Marshall Plan. They thought the countries receiving the money should have to either repay us later, or do something in order to grant the money. Another example of the use of soft power, is the battle for occupation of Berlin. Berlin was split up into four different countries, USSR, USA, France, and Great Britain. The Soviets wanted the entirety of Berlin to themselves, so they set a blockade to starve the citizens. The blockade was unsuccessful as the US forces airlifted supplies to the western part of Berlin. On April 14, 1950 American launched a new policy for the Cold War. NSC-68 was put into command to try and prevent wars. This hard power policy was carried throughout the Korean War. US claimed that they would not initiate the conflict in order to prevent future conflicts. The Korean war was between the communist backed North Korea and the democratic backed South Korea. The outcome of the war only raised tensions. Back home, an Arms race was forming between the Soviets and the Americans. Both the Soviets and the Americans had access to nuclear bombs. This caused fear in both countries causing them to increase production. In 1953 Eisenhower came into office with new foreign policy ideas. Eisenhower believed that Truman’s approach had caused the United States into an endless series of conflicts. Eisenhower was nuclear hungry, he believed that the US should start to build more and more nuclear missiles in preparation. By the end of the 1950’s, US had over 20,000 thousand nuclear warheads, while the USSR lagging behind with a little over 1,500. This was Eisenhower’s use of hard power. As the arms race gradually increases, so does the suspicion of espionage within the United States. Truman’s Loyalty Program allowed the FBI to examine people who were thought to be disloyal and possible communist. This use of hard power only put more fear into the citizens. The program prompted the HUAC,House of UnAmerican Activities Committee, to blame Hollywood screenwriters of putting communist propoganda into movies.

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