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Environmental economic instrument

 

In case of water fee in
2016, pollution control department was set up wastewater fee for 8 districts in
Bangkok, where located of water environment control plants (table 2). According to
table 2, found that proportion of collecting fee will be 90 percent from
households, 10 percent from manufactory. The fee will depend on water
consumption in the buildings, by the rate will vary on type of construction;
households, office building, and manufactory.

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After
that, Apirak Kosayothin, Governor of Bangkok , at that time, saw the economic,
social, political and other factors went down. That is why fee is still in the
same price as 20 baht per month. Anyway, government still can not keep up with
the target. Information from the Environmental Bureau Bangkok said that
currently Bangkok has about 2.1 million households. but only 1.9 million
households can be collected the fee and remaining problem. There are 4 main
reasons: 1. Unemployed 2. Refusing to pay from live in a rented house. 3. Old
people and people with disabilities 4. Unoccupied House In addition to
penalties for non-payment of junk, it is not a criminal offense. And not cut
off the fire as if not paying electricity. Most people are not afraid. As a
result, in 2016, Bangkok can collect waste fee only 495,840,886 million baht,
while the waste budget was 6,568 million baht. That is mean, Bangkok must carry
a disposal costs up to 6,072 million baht per year.

In
the past, the collection and disposal of solid waste is under the Public health
act, BE 2535 (1992), Section 20, which requires local authorities to set and
collect fees. The condition that can be collected not exceeding the rate
prescribed in the Ministerial Regulation on the collection of waste, solid
waste and sewage charges, 2002, which stipulates that the daily garbage should
not exceed 20 liters or 4 kilograms and collect fee not more than 40 baht per
month.

Water
and waste policy fee

It
is located side of Bang sue canal, which is cover Doi Tung district with area
33.4 square kilometers and it can control wastewater up to 150,000 cubic
meters. The length of combined sewe is 37.5 kilometres with the Cyclic
Activated Sludge System.

7)
Chatu chak water environment control plant

It
is located near the City Hall of the Greater Mekong Subregion District.that can
be used 37 square kilometers of 7 district. Water treatment capacity is 350,000
cubic meters/day with length of sewe 66 kilometres by Activated Sludge with
Nutrients Removal method.

6)
Din Daeng water environment control plant

It
is located in Prachauthit 90 that have area 42 square kilometers of Thung Khru
district and also cover Chom Thong and Chumphon districts, which is control
wastewater up to 65,000 square meters/day by pumping air ‘Vertical Loop
Reactor’ method

5)
Thung kru water environment control plant

 

 

It
is located in the raffle treatment that can be used up to 157,000 square meters
of 3 district with sewe length 46 kilometres by pumping air ‘Vertical Loop
Reactor’ method

4)
Nong kam water environment control plant

It
is located in the mouth of Chong Nonsi canal. Waste water treatment services in
28.5 square kilometers of Yannawa, Sathorn, Bangrak and Bangkholaem districts
that can control polluted water up to 200,000 square meters with sewe length of
55 kilometers by cyclic activated sludge method.

3)
Chong nonsi water environment control plant

area
of ??Phranakhon district. It can treat wastewater up to 40,000 cubic meters/day
with sewe length 16.25 kilometres by two-stage activated sludge method.

It
is located at Ban Phanom Market, which have area 4.2 square kilometers that
cover the

 2) Rattana Kosin water environment control
plant

kilometer
of 3 districts and sewe length 2.3 kilometer that can control sewage in 30,000
cubic metre/day by used stabilization activated sludge method.

It
is located on the mouth of the Krungkasem canal, which have area 2.7 square

1) Sri Phraya water environment
control plant

In
table 1, show detail of efficiency of 7 water environment control plants in
Bangkok. All of wastewater were 693,300 cubic metre/day or equal 70 percent of
total treated wastewater (992,000 cubic metre/day). BOD have 24-56 mg/l and
Suspended Solids (SS) level of wastewater have 24-121 mg/l that showed lower
values than expectancy from the low values of input wastewater that were bad
quality but to focus on efficiency of water treatment, It is still in good
standard. In Bangkok, It have 7 main wastewater control plant, which can
support to recycle wastewater in 20 district.

Efficiency
of water treatment

In
1998, cabinet resolution and Promotion and Conservation of National
Environmental Quality Act, B.E. 2535, approve the sewerage system project inner
Bangkok area with 220 kilometers. At present, department of drainage and
sewerage opened 8 water environment control plants in Bangkok that can treat
wastewater in 992,000 cubic metre/day also opened 12 small water environment
control plants. But it only can treat 40 percent of wastewater in Bangkok. So
the government have another project to open new 4 water treatment plants in
2020 for admit all of resident wastewater in Bangkok. Nowadays, Bangkok have
been continued their plan in sewerage system project with Japan International
Cooperation Agency to open another water plants up to 20 areas in the city for
increase quantity of treated-wastewater up to 60 percent before 2020.

Sewerage
system project and plan to control polluted water in Bangkok

 

In
the past, interceptor sewerage system have been developed to control flood
water also collected all of wastewater and rainwater in Bangkok. In the
drought, wastewater have been collected by combined sewer to treat in sewage
treatment plant after that. On the other hand, due to wastewater and rainwater
in rainy season drained away in sewer that rise a water level in combined
sewer, approximately to 5 times in drought. After treated in treatment plant,
over-wastewater paused in overflow chamber then released to canals. Nowadays,
Bangkok have more than 1,000 overflow chambers for collected and treated
over-wastewater in rainy season before flow down in canals. Conversely,
wastewater and rainwater in non-overflow chamber area have released in the
water without treatment (JICA, 2554).

Interceptor
sewerage system in Bangkok

Currently
wastewater management in Bangkok

 

Second,
water pollution from industrial factory. It generated by industrial processes;
production processing, washing raw materials and utilizing in factory.
Normally, All of manufactory have wastewater treatment system or sludge system
to manage water under Ministry of Industry standards before released greywater
into the rivers. But The composition of industrial wastewater is different.
Depending on the effluent flow rate, type and size of the manufactory. In case
of Chao Phraya river found that, It was polluted by factory and residential
waste. In the past, The river have not been polluted much, and many of Thai
people did not pay attention on recycling water. In 1982, There have study
about heavy metal in the Chao Phraya river that showed heavy metal contents of
samples; mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb), which were higher than mean world
concentrations. Therefore, It had effect in fishery industrial around the Chao
Phraya river (Polprasert, 1982). Recently, The Pollution Control Department of
Thailand reported a level of DO In 2014 of 1.1 mg/l in the lower part of the
Chao Phraya, which locate in Bangkok area. On the other hand, compares to a
normal range of north and middle part of the Chao Phraya river, which locate in
northern part of Thailand, had level of DO between 3 and 5 mg/l. Hence, all of
those studies can assume that residents and industry are the major of pollution
sources in the river and canals.

Water
pollution is one of the major environmental problems in Bangkok, from
deteriorated water quality. Pollution sources that affected water quality are
divided into two main types; Point source, with its from community, Industrial
factory., and Non-Point source, with its from agricultural (PCD, 2017). First point
source in Bangkok was households, they released sewage into the water resources
without treated system. In the study of Tep Lee La community, which had a lot
of households lived on the Saen Saeb canal. When considering within this slums,
found that amount of people were migrant labourer who lived in rented rooms or
bunkhouses for working in Bangkok. From their working life, it was hard to get
thiers participation to concern in environment problems. Due to Mass of wastes
under their roofs. Moreover, the population has been illegally expanding from
worker who want to save their living expenses. so these behavior and
relationships between communities have been effected on the Saen Saeb canal (dechacheep,
2557). Also another study from Saen Saeb canal found that 80.6 percent of water
pollution in Saen Saeb canals came from communities along the canal, 6 percent
came from garage, and 2.4 percent came from gas station. After that Testing
water quality along Saen Saeb canal by eleven spot samples from Pratunam district
to Nong jok market, found that results have DO values between 0.4-4.3
milligrams per litre (mg/l) and BOD values between 4.3-15.4 mg/l (fig 2). From
this results, bad water quality have been induced from crowded area (Sukarom,
2552).

Source
of pollution

Thailand
has several rivers, with its begins from the northern part of Thailand and
splits into the four main rivers; Ping, Wang, Yom, and Nan. After this Ping and
Nan rivers is confluent down in central part of Thailand and join to form the
Chao Phraya river in the Pak Nam Pho district, Nakhon Sawan province (fig 1).
The Chao Phraya is the only one river that meanders through Bangkok and it is
flowing in a southward direction, emptying into the Gulf of Thailand
approximately 25 kilometers south part of the city (Sinsakul, 2000). Because of
its tactical location close the mouth of the river, Bangkok gradually increased
in importance. In Bangkok, the Chao Phraya river is one of the main
transportation artery for a routes of public transports; river buses,
cross-river ferries, and longtails boat. Moreover, the structure of the river has
been modified by the construction of several shortcut canals and most of them
were dug up for main public transport in the past, when infrastructure did not
develop. They also played an important role in the main transportation artery that
are open for a public transport; Saen Saeb canal, Pra ka nong canal, and Ban
Pae Canal. There also pass through the center area of Bangkok, where can be
convenient and escape from traffic. Furthermore, there is a water sources for
consumption in the era that tap water is not accessible to every household.
People utilize water from these canals in their everyday life. but at this
time, canal plays an important role in drainage system, with its help to
release too much water in rainy season. It acts as a supporter by store water
before drain into the rivers. Hence, canals have been reformed to close system
by government and built a water gate to control water level for transportation
(JICA, 2554).

Rivers
and canals in Bangkok

Backgrounds
of water pollution in Bangkok

 

Related
to the direct and indirect issues that occurred to rivers and canals,
government and several organizations had made a contribution to solving the
problems. However, different areas contained different conditions. Therefore,
the development of environment was often related to the consciousness of people
in the community, economic, culture and the landscape of the community as well
as the community law and the process for solving the problem must be conducted
with the collaboration from the community in order to consistently gain insight
knowledge in many different aspects. The purpose of this term paper is to
reduce water pollution in Bangkok by use water effluent fees for developing the
quality of the environment in Bangkok. This paper was divided into five parts;
introduction, backgrounds of water pollution in Bangkok, environment economic
instrument to decrease water pollution, analysis of environment economic
instrument to reduce water pollution in Bangkok and conclusion.

In
the past, water transportation was considered as a major route of Bangkok to
use for domestic and overseas trading or boat in everyday life. Nowadays,
Bangkok is the economic center in Thailand, and it is the main of the country’s
investment and development. So it made Bangkok’s population gradually increased
as the city modernized with a population of 5,682,415 according to the 2017
census. Although city modification had grown rapidly, the intricate waterway
network has still been selected by city dwellers to travel in their daily life
for escape from rush hour traffic. Moreover, most people lived near or on the
rivers and canals also did their activities in the water. Hence, many of these
canals have since been paved over, but others canals still crossing in the city
and using as a major of drainage channels and transport routes. But most of the
canals are now badly polluted from household wastewater without treatment
system. Up until now, the state of pollution of the water in the canal was
intense and grew more problem. The official water analysis of Saen Saeb canal
samples, one of the main public transportation in Bangkok, showed that
dissolved oxygen values (DO) in the canal had lower than standard and the
samples from crowded community area showed the lowest DO values in Saen Saeb
canal which is lack of wastewater treatment system and directly released sewage
into the canal.

Introduction

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