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Elijah SohPeriod 2US Honors12/15/17What is the vocabulary essential to discussing international policy? Using online sources or reference materials, define the following terms:Nation-A large body of people that are united by common descent and culture while inhabiting a particular territoryState-A nation or territory that is considered as an organized political community that functions under one governmentSovereign-a supreme ruler which can be a monarch(noun), possessing supreme power over something(adjective)Nationalism-Patriotic feelings that one has for their country, feeling of being superior over other countries Power-The ability to do something in a particular way that one wishes, the ability to direct others and having controlNational security-it is a concept that a government with its parliaments should provide protection for the state and its citizens against all national crises Current Example-President Trump is ready to roll out the first National Security Strategy which is a document that prioritizes defending the homeland, protecting American prosperity, keeping peace through strength, and improving American influence. If this is passed, foreign economies will be seen as opponents and the country of America will the primary focus. National interest-The interest of the nation as a whole rather than the interests of a person or a specific groupCurrent Example-Currently, net neutrality is keeping the internet open and fair to everyone by making sure that the Internet Service Providers can not block websites. They are also not allowed to selectively charge money for fast lanes and purposely weaken competitors by making their websites slow. Under Title II, it is unlawful for any carrier to make unjust discrimination or give any unreasonable advantage. If net neutrality is repealed, this would go against the public interest which was expressed through large demonstrations. However, the FCC Chairman is seeking to repeal net neutrality rules and Republicans are against neutrality while the Democrats are for it. The national interest is yet to have a firm foundation with one true national interest. The topic is so divided that the interest of the nation as a whole is yet to be confirmed. Interventionism-the acting of interfering, the government interfering in economic affairs at home or in political affairs of foreign countriesCurrent Example-The country of Chechnya is interfering in the political affairs of Syria. Lately, the engagement between Chechen authorities and Syria has been unprecedented for. Chechen military forces are now important in the de-escalation zones and diplomatic relations between the two nations have increased. The people of Chechnya through their leader, Ramzan Kadyrov, are now trying to combat ISIS which is a political affair in Syria. The communication between Chechen and Syrian officials have highly increased and are now a huge part in the battle against ISIS. Diplomacy-The practice of negotiating between different nations, skill in handling affairs without creating ill feelingsCurrent Example-As of now, there is still a chance for diplomacy to be established in North Korea if they are able to get what they want from the other nations. North Korea has stated that they will have a peace treaties with opponents and a nuclear deterrent with the United States if they recognize the sovereignty and independence of North Korea. North Korea must also b e given security guarantees to allow the country to further develop their economy. Nations are believing that allowing diplomacy to form in North Korea may be a start to resolving the tensions with North Korea. The problem is, diplomacy would only be effective if the U.S. can realize that they can not denuclearize North Korea as of now. Realpolitik-Politics based on practical and material factors rather than focusing on theoretical or ethical goalsCurrent Example-The United States government has trained Syrian rebels in Jordan and other countries so they could return to Syria and fight against ISIS. The United States wanted to support the opposition in Syria because if they were not supplied, the extremists can give them money and lure people into their organisations. In the end instead of providing weapons, the United States provided food, medical kits, and non dangerous military gear. This represents realpolitik because although we do not support terrorism and their intentions, we help them because they will help us destroy the problem of ISIS. Bipartisan policies-policies that represent, characterize, or include members of two parties or factionsCurrent Example-A new conservative group is attempting to convince Republicans of the true value of renewable energy. Republicans have always been uneasy and never fully submissive into the idea of using renewable energies such as solar. As of now, this push can be made because the cost of renewable energies is now competing with the usage of fossil fuels. Although Republicans currently are not very associated with renewable energy, this proposal will try to bring Republicans into the scenario. The leadership council of this nonprofit group already includes well known Republicans such as former governor Tommy Thompson. The hopes of this idea is that it will unite public and private leaders to create bipartisan policies regarding renewable energies, thus benefiting everyone. Superpower-Excessive or superior power, an extremely powerful nation that is very dominant amongst others and able to enforce its will upon the most powerful statesII.   What is the Constitutional basis for our nation’s role in world affairs? Review the US Constitution and note the following: The Constitution establishes the powers of both the legislative and executive branch regarding our nation’s role in world affairs. The powers given to both of these branches and how they are used determine the nation’s status amongst other foreign countries. Through the choices of these branches, our nation’s role changes in the world’s affairs.The powers of the executive branch regarding international affairs. Be specific as to the powers delegated and where they are located in the Constitution Regarding international affairs, the powers of the executive branch is mainly listed in Article II Section 2 of the Constitution. It states that the president will be the Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States. In addition to this, the president shall be the commander of the Militia of several states and may require the opinion, in writing, or the principal officer in each of the executive departments relating to the duties of their respective offices. The president also has the power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the United States except in cases of impeachment. He has the power to make treaties with foreign countries if two thirds of the Senators agree. With the advice and consent of the Senate, he can also appoint Ambassadors, public Ministers, and Consuls, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States. The powers of the legislative branch regarding international affairs. Be specific as to the powers delegated and where they are located in the Constitution The legislative branch’s powers regarding international affairs is located in Article I Section 8 of the Constitution. In this section, Congress is given the power to regulate commerce with foreign nations. Congress also has the power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises to provide for the common defense and welfare of the United States. Congress can also declare war on foreign countries and maintain a Navy. In addition to this, they can raise and support armies. Congress can make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces. III.  Who are the key participants in designing the nation’s role in international affairs and explain their roles?President The president is probably the most influential role in the government regarding foreign policy of the nation. With the consent of the Senate, the president can carry out foreign policy through treaties and appointing ambassadors. The president can also call for summit meeting with world leaders to discuss among multiple nations. The president under the Constitution can also project U.S. power around the globe very quickly through an executive decision. Through the choices that the president makes, the nation can be projected as a friendly nation or one that is very aggressive to foreign countries.George Washington George Washington had designed the nation’s role in international affairs by declaring the position of neutrality for the United States. This was during the time of the French Revolution. The French expected Americans to help and Americans were very split amongst the parties on whose position to take. Democratic Republicans desired to support the French while Federalists wanted to support the British. As a result, President Washington declared neutrality on April 22, 1793 which was a statement that the nation would not support neither side in the conflict. James Monroe After Spain and Portugal defeated Napoleon in 1815, all of these foreign European powers wanted to reclaim their former colonies in Latin America. Spain and Portugal were trying to move back and Russia was pushing in from the northwest of California. Americans had to take action against these foreign countries. President Monroe in his message from 1823 warned all outside powers not to interfere with affairs in the Western Hemisphere. He said that if they try to create new colonies or overthrow the newly independent republics in the hemisphere, the United States would consider it dangerous to the peace and safety of the country. He established the Monroe Doctrine which would keep the United States from involving themselves in European affairs or interfere with existing colonies in the Western Hemisphere. He established the nation’s role of being neutral and safe in international affairs through the Monroe Doctrine.Secretary of State The Secretary of State’s responsibility is to represent the president outside of the homeland. The Secretary of State is the head of the U.S. State Department. This Department carries out foreign policy decisions and helps develop this policy all around the world. Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson was highly influential in designing the nation’s role in international affairs. Jefferson was the person who was able to balance the country’s weak international position and the fear of expanding federal powers with his desire of U.S. territorial and commercial expansion. As secretary of State, Jefferson was limited by the neutrality of Washington regarding the war between Britain in France to really take action in foreign affairs. Jefferson later waged a war to force the Barbary States to stop interfering with U.S. shipping. The infringement of U.S. neutrality eventually pushed for the 1807 Embargo Act which prohibited U.S. shipping but unfortunately hurt the U.S. economy. John Quincy Adams As Secretary of State under President James Monroe, he highly prioritized the security of the nation and expansion of its territory. To accomplish this, Adams worked out the Rush-Bagot treaty with Great Britain to reduce the Great Lakes fleets of both countries to only a few military vessels. This treaty eventually led the United States and Canada to demilitarize their common border. He later reached a compromise with Britain to jointly occupy the Oregon Territory. Another success he had was signing the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain ceded Florida to the United States and gave up its claims to the Oregon Territory because of their weakness to police their territories. John Quincy Adams has designed the nation to be one that is cooperative with foreign nations. He established a compromising nation that can accept values and sign treaties with other countries through negotiations.Secretary of War The position of being secretary of war designs the nation’s role in international affairs because it is a position that handles military matters. The first secretary of war was Henry Knox who was appointed when George Washington had formed the cabinet. Since this position has the ability to handle military affairs, this person can oversee the nation’s state against the foreign nations. They can make decisions based off of these observations and they are able to make the military act when needed. Unfortunately, the Secretary of War ceased to exist in 1947 as it was replaced by the Secretary of the Army, Secretary of the Air Force, and Secretary of the Navy. All of this became part of the Department of Defense which is overseen by the secretary of Defense. The secretary of defense is the principal defense policy maker and oversees the country’s military matters.Congress Congress has the powers under the Constitution to regulate commerce with foreign nations, declare war, raise and support armies, provide and maintain a navy, and make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces. Through these powers, Congress can choose whether or not to initiate trades with particular foreign countries and set the defense budget. Congress designs the nation’s role in international affairs by showing how Congress has control over declaring war and regulating trade with foreign countries. They are the ones who specifically shape the nation’s job in foreign policies based on what they choose to do and who they choose to associate with. Political Parties Regarding the nation’s role in international affairs, different political parties bring many opinions on the nation’s international identity to the table. Instead of carrying a bipartisan foreign policy, there are different tendencies that lie within different parties and what they support regarding how the nation conducts foreign affairs. As the parties represent their claims on how the nation should be interfering with foreign countries, the nation’s role in associating with foreign nations is constructedRepublicans Republicans believe that the nation should utilise their military to foster democracy all throughout the world. This represents the position of being neoconservatives. They believe that force must be conducted so that democracy can promote global stability. Republicans are also isolationists in which they desire to avoid alliances with foreign nations. This can be things such as the nation ignoring affairs outside the country’s borders and focusing on themselves. They are also “hard line” conservatives which comes from their strong sense of exerting nationalism. They want to keep the United States as the dominant power of the world and maintain their supreme power. Internationalists are also included in the Republicans as they desire foreign policies that serve American interests. Unlike neoconservatives, these people seek to find interests of foreign nations if it satisfies their country’s goals. All of these are factions within the Republican government regarding the nation’s role in international affairs.Democrats Similar to the Republican party, the Democratic party have many factions representing their different views of foreign policy. One of them are liberal internationalists. They are similar to neoconservatives because they believe in spreading democracy to stabilize foreign countries. Their difference is that they see democratic peace emerging through multinational institutions rather than force. Another faction is the protectionists. These people believe that the nation’s resources should be used to primarily help the homeland rather than foreign countries. Everything in their opinion should focus on increasing the wellbeing of the country. There are also single-issue groups or also called social welfare internationalists. These people want the United States to be active in shaping international affairs. They see the United States as the boss of transnational issues such as poverty. The final faction is Anti-War. These people object wars because of its morality. They believe that wars in foreign countries risk the safety of the nation and limit our civil liberties. Mass media The mass media designs the nation’s role in international affairs because they have the ability to influence the actions taken regarding the United States and a foreign nation. Advocacy groups for foreign nations often play a huge role in trying to influence Congress and the president about their issues. Businesses try to influence Congress and the president to take action based on international trading issues and economies. Through the mass media, groups and individuals can express their views on certain foreign policy issues. This would allow people to protest and take political actions in an attempt to influence decisions. All these things that the mass media can allow the general public to do shows how the nation’s role in international affairs is not just solely Congress and the president. The people through the mass media can easily influence Congress and the president in shaping the nation’s foreign role differently, thus showing the impact of the mass media for international affairs

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